Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2008, Vol. 81, No. 9, pp. 1710−1712.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2008.
Original Russian Text © D.F. Suleimanov, R.N. Phatkhullin, E.V. Boev, V.G. Afanasenko, 2008, published in Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost’, 2008, Vol. 85,
No. 4, pp. 200−202.
PROCESSES AND DEVICES
OF CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES
Main Reprocessing Ways of Industrial Waste Water
on the Local Plants
D. F. Suleimanov, R. N. Phatkhullin, E. V. Boev, and V. G. Afanasenko
State Oil-Engineering University, Sterliramak, Russia
Received March 15, 2008
Abstract—Some ways of wastewater treatment on the local plants are presented. An application of the suggested
ways allows reuse of the reprocessed water to reuse and the optimization of the operating costs.
Replacement of technologically used natural fresh
water by the treated wastewater allows to avoid a de-
ﬁ ciency of a water supply and to prevent an exhaustion
of the fresh water. One of the ways is the building of
recirculated system of the industrial water supply based
on the reuse of the industrial water treated to ﬁ t the cor-
responding requirements of the process water quality.
A deﬁ nite chemical composition of the water is re-
quired for each speciﬁ c technological process. Hence
large amount of the reprocessing ways is known.
A scheme of water treatment must provide minimum
discharge of the wastewater into the onsite water, its
maximum reuse in technological processes and in the
recirculated systems, more complete extraction of valu-
Local or community wastewater treatment plants are
mainly emplyed in the chemical industry. The latter may
include a primary (mechanical), secondary (biological),
and tertiary (aftertreatment) wastewater treatment
Local wasterwater treatment plants are applied to de-
contaminating water immediately after a technologic out-
let. The local wasterwater treatment plant is one of the
steps of a technological process when as a rule the valu-
able admixtures are extracted, because usually regenera-
tive processes: sedimentation, ﬂ otation, extraction, reﬁ n-
ing, adsorption, ion exchange, reverse osmosis are used.
Let us consider each of these processes.
Devices of periodical and continuous operation are
used for removal from waste waters of the suspended
substances by a settling in response to an external force
such as gravity. Settlings of the periodical operation are
applied in case of a small ﬂ ow. They look like a metal or
ferroconcrete reservoirs with conic bottom from where
water is decanted through a siphon or special gutters.
The settlings of continuous operation are used at the
large ﬂ ow. They may be vertical, horizontal, and radial.
Also plate (manytier) settlings, pipe settlings with small
and steep pipe slope are used .
A ﬂ occulation is employed for an acceleration of
the sedimentation and an efﬁ ciency increase of a water
clariﬁ cation and a decoloration That is an enlargement
of the colloid and suspended particles caused by clump
ing together into ﬂ ocs under action of adhesion forces. A
hydrolysis and a formation of low soluble alkalis occur
at a dissolution of coagulants being salts of weak bases
and strong acids in water. Aluminium sulfate, ferrous
sulfate, ferrous chloride, potassium alum and a mixture
of ferrous sulfate and chloride are widely applied as co-
agulants. In the rare cases salts of magnesium, zinc, and
titanium are used .
Signiﬁ cant amount of water in the sediment both in
various bound states with species and in the free state is
a disadvantage of this treatment.
A burial of this bulky wet mud is complicated by
rapid increase of a coagulant consumption for the water
treatment and conditions of its accumulation do not ﬁ t
to requirements of a environmental protection. However
this problem is solved by the coagulant regeneration by
an acid processing that decreases the initial sediment to
15−18 vol% .