ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 4, pp. 517−534. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
The text was submitted by the authors in English.
An excess amount of urea in blood serum causes
various dysfunctions in the human body. Normal
physiological level of blood serum urea is 15−40 mg dL
in human body . The higher levels of blood urea and
urine can increase the risk of kidney failure, urinary
tract obstruction and loss of water, shocks, burns
and gastrointestinal bleeding. While lower levels are
responsible for hepatic failure, cachexia and nephritic
The intake of urea in human body is through various
sources, such as crops, water, dairy milk, etc. Urea, being
an ingredient of the cattle feed, is transferred to dairy milk.
Besides the determination of urea concentration in human
body, it needs to be frequently analysed in dairy milk.
Some concentration of urea in blood is also transferred
to female milk. The development of highly sensitive, low
cost urea biosensor with super selectivity remained the
subject of research in medical science and dairy industry.
In the recent years, an increasing number of researches
revolved around the use of MNPs inherent properties
like high surface to volume ratio, biocompatibility and
biorecognition for the fabrication of nanobiosensor .
This review is an attempt of the state of the art researches
that focus on MNPs based urea biosensor.
Properties of Nanoparticles
Nanoparticle research became popular in various ﬁ elds
of scientiﬁ c and engineering research during the last three
decades. A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster
or nanocrystal) is a microscopic particle with at least one
dimension from a few nm to 100 nm . Nanoparticles
are unique because of tremendous increase in surface
to volume ratio and this dominates the contributions
made by the small bulk of the material. According to
Abstract—Nanobiotechnology has opened a new and exciting opportunities for exploring urea biosensor based
on magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) mainly Fe
. These NPs have been extensively exploited to de-
velop biosensors with stability, selectivity, reproducibility and fast response time. This review gives an overview
of the development of urea biosensor based on Fe
for in vitro diagnostic applications along with
signiﬁ cant improvements over the last few decades. Additionally, effort has been made to elaborate properties
of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in biosensing aspects. It also gives details of recent developments in hybrid
nanobiocomposite based urea biosensor.
Magnetic Nanoparticles (Fe
and Their Applications in Urea Biosensing
, Mukhtar Ahmad
, Majid Niaz Akhtar
, Saleem Farooq Shaukat
, M. Atif
, and W. A. Farooq
Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800 Pakistan
Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University,
Riyadh, 11451 Saudi Arabia
National Institute of Laser and Optronics, Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan
Received March 2, 2016