Magnesium deficiency increases the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which is consistently accompanied by the sensitization of cells such as neutrophils, macrophages and endothelial cells. We investigated the potential of magnesium to regulate macrophage polarization and macrophage-induced inflammation with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) activation and further elucidated whether these effects impact the inhibitory functions of activated macrophage-induced inflammation on cartilage regeneration. The results showed that magnesium inhibited the activation of macrophages, as indicated by a significant reduction in the percentage of CCR7-positive cells, while the percentage of CD206-positive cells decreased to a lesser degree. After activation, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were down-regulated at the mRNA level and certain cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) were decreased in the cell supernatant with the addition of magnesium. Moreover, magnesium decreased the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to impede its activation. A modified micromass culture system was applied to assess the effects of activated macrophage-conditioned medium with or without magnesium treatment on the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Magnesium enhanced the chondrogenic differentiation of hBMSCs by reversing the adverse effects of activated macrophage-induced inflammation.
Scientific Reports – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 21, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera