Machining characteristics of 18Ni-300 steel in additive/subtractive
Received: 1 June 2017 /Accepted: 10 November 2017 /Published online: 24 November 2017
Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017
Additive manufacturing (AM) possesses capability of building complicated parts that are otherwise difficult to manufacture by
the conventional methods. However, the dimensional and geometric accuracies as well as surface quality of an AM-produced part
are inferior to the conventionally machined part, which hinders the AM applications. Thus, an additive/subtractive hybrid
manufacturing (ASHM) method is developed to take advantage of both the AM and precision subtractive manufacture (SM).
However, the microstructures of the AMed parts are different from those of the conventional metallic parts. In addition, the
residual stress induced by the AM stages influences the machined residual stress reconstruction in the subtractive stages. In order
to investigate the effect of microstructure and the AM-induced residual stress on the machining characteristics, a milling
experiment is conducted on AMed and wrought samples. The results of the cutting force, machined residual stress, and surface
roughness are compared. It is found that the machining characteristics of AMed samples are different from those of wrought
samples due to different microstructures and residual stress evolutions. The paper provides a guidance to the optimization of the
processing parameters in the ASHM.
Keywords Additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing
18Ni maraging steel
Machined surface roughness
Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great benefits of
manufacturing parts with geometric and material complexities
efficiently. For metallic materials, the AM methods include
selective laser melting (SLM) , selective laser sintering
(SLS) ,fuseddepositionmodeling(FDM), laser
engineered net shaping (LENS) , direct metal deposition
(DMD) , and electron beam melting (EBM) .
However, the parts made by the AM methods have a relatively
poor surface finish and quality, as well as dimensional and
In order to improve the surface quality of the AMed parts,
the shape deposition manufacturing (SDM)  and controlled
metal build-up (CMB)  use a combination of additive and
subtractive techniques to accomplish the deposition and the
machining processes in the same setup . In these methods,
powder materials are sprayed through a nozzle into the spot of
a laser beam focused on the workpiece, and the relative inac-
curacy of the powder jet deposition has been remedied by
applying a CNC milling operation that mills the contour and
the upper surface of each layer before applying the next one
. These methods propose frameworks for applying the
concept of additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing.
Research work has also been focused on pulse laser wire
depositing in combination with high-speed milling for fabri-
cating parts with high precision  and the hybrid plasma
deposition and milling for aero-engine components .
Additionally, selective laser cladding (SLC) and milling were
cooperatively used for mold fabrication and modification .
laser welding was combined with the conven-
tional milling for rapid prototyping and tooling . Recently,
a CNC milling machine was integrated with an arc welding
unit . A study was also conducted on machinability of the
materials fabricated by a hybrid process .
* Qian Bai
Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining
Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of
Technology, Dalian, People’sRepublicofChina
Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Southern
University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, People’sRepublic
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2018) 95:2509–2519