Machine vision technologies hold the promise of enabling rapid and accurate fruit crop yield predictions in the field. The key to fulfilling this promise is accurate segmentation and detection of fruit in images of tree canopies. This paper proposes two new methods for automated counting of fruit in images of mango tree canopies, one using texture-based dense segmentation and one using shape-based fruit detection, and compares the use of these methods relative to existing techniques:—(i) a method based on K-nearest neighbour pixel classification and contour segmentation, and (ii) a method based on super-pixel over-segmentation and classification using support vector machines. The robustness of each algorithm was tested on multiple sets of images of mango trees acquired over a period of 3 years. These image sets were acquired under varying conditions (light and exposure), distance to the tree, average number of fruit on the tree, orchard and season. For images collected under the same conditions as the calibration images, estimated fruit numbers were within 16 % of actual fruit numbers, and the F1 measure of detection performance was above 0.68 for these methods. Results were poorer when models were used for estimating fruit numbers in trees of different canopy shape and when different imaging conditions were used. For fruit-background segmentation, K-nearest neighbour pixel classification based on colour and smoothness or pixel classification based on super-pixel over-segmentation, clustering of dense scale invariant feature transform features into visual words and bag-of-visual-word super-pixel classification using support vector machines was more effective than simple contrast and colour based segmentation. Pixel classification was best followed by fruit detection using an elliptical shape model or blob detection using colour filtering and morphological image processing techniques. Method results were also compared using precision–recall plots. Imaging at night under artificial illumination with careful attention to maintaining constant illumination conditions is highly recommended.
Precision Agriculture – Springer Journals
Published: May 31, 2016
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera