1070-4272/03/7607-1164$25.00C 2003 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 76, No. 7, 2003, pp. 1164 !1166. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 76, No. 7,
2003, pp. 1197!1199.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2003 by Belousov, Paznikov, Petrova, Kalmykov.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
A. M. Belousov, E. A. Paznikov, G. Ya. Petrova, and P. I. Kalmykov
Biisk Technological Institute, Branch of the Polzunov Altai State Technical University, Biisk, Altai krai, Russia
Received December 23, 2003; in final form, May 2003
Abstract-Low-temperature curing of poly[N-methyl(allyl)-5-vinyltetrazole) with 1,3-dicyano-2,4,6-triethyl-
benzene N, N`-dioxide was studied.
Thermodynamic calculations show that binders
based on heterocyclic compounds can be promising
components of high-energy-capacity condensed sys-
tems thanks to their high enthalpy of formation, in-
creased nitrogen content, chemical compatibility with
other components, and low sensitivity to mechanical
actions. The most interesting among such compounds
are poly(vinyltetrazoles) [1, 2].
In this work we studied low-temperature curing of
Low-temperature curing was effected by 1,3-dicy-
ano-2,4,6-triethylbenzene N, N-dioxide (ODTB). In
the experiments we used PMVT-A plasticized with
various plasticizers (polymer : plasticizer weight ratio
15 : 85). As plasticizers we used a mixed nitrate ester
(a mixture of glycerol trinitrate and diethylene glycol
dinitrate) (binder 1) and a mixture based on 1-alkyl-
3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (binder 2). The performance of
the curing agents was evaluated by changes in the gel
fraction content P
(%) and mean molecular weight
of the segment between cross-links M
First we examined the influence of the hardener
concentration on the curing of the binders, to deter-
mine the optimal hardener concentration.
Curing was performed at 40oC with various ODTB
concentrations. The results are shown in Fig. 1. It is
seen that, starting from the ODTB concentration of
0.45 wt %, the gel fraction content reaches a stable
level of 98399 wt %. This ODTB concentration can
be recommended as optimal.
The next stage of our work was a kinetic study of
the binder curing at the optimal ODTB concentration
of 0.45 wt %. Curing of binders 1 and 2 was per-
formed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, and 60oC. Figure 2
shows that, below 40oC, the kinetic curves have an
inflection at the gel fraction content of 85390 wt %.
Calculation of the apparent activation energies and
entropies of curing from the kinetic curves for the
temperature range 253 40oC revealed significant dif-
ferences between the process characteristics before
and after the inflection point. The final stage of curing
> 90%) is characterized by the higher activation
energy and different activation entropy (see table).
With the nitrotriazole plasticizer, the activation energy
is lower than with the nitro ester plasticizer. This may
Fig. 1. Gel fraction content P
as a function of ODTB con-
centration c. Binder: (1) 1 and (2)2.
Fig. 2. Kinetic curves of curing of binders (a) 1 and (b) 2
with ODTB at (1) 25, (2) 30, (3) 35, (4) 40, (5) 50, and
) Gel fraction content and (t) time.