ISSN 0010-5082, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, 2018, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 370–375.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2018.
Original Russian Text
N.S. Marishin, F.A. Serant, A.I. Tsepenok, A.A. Lavrinenko, O.I. Stavskaya.
Firing Systems with
Swirl Burners Installed on Boilers
PK-39-IIM and BKZ-420-140-5
N. S. Marishin
A. A. Lavrinenko
, and O. I. Stavskaya
Published in Fizika Goreniya i Vzryva, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 131–136, May–June, 2018.
Original article submitted September 1, 2017; revision submitted November 17, 2017.
Abstract: The paper presents basic technical solutions for the ﬁring system and design of the
burners of boilers PK-39-IIM and BKZ-420-140-5 when ﬁring Ekibastuz coal. The developed low-
ﬁring systems ensure low nitrogen oxide emissions both at low cross-section heat release rates
and high furnace cross-section heat release rates. Technical solutions developed for the ﬁring sys-
tems are based on the simulation of coal combustion in furnaces of the mentioned boilers using
ANSYS Fluent software.
Keywords: steam boiler, ﬁring system, swirl burner, low-emission burner, nitrogen oxides, Ek-
Until recently, environmentally friendly combus-
tion of solid fuel in boilers did not seem to be of great
importance. Major focus was on stable ignition and
combustion, as well as complete fuel burnout with ex-
cess air at exit from furnace α
of ﬁring systems sought to ensure the condition for the
best possible and quick mixing of air and fuel. Typical
features of conventional ﬁring systems were high swirl
rates in fuel-air mixture nozzles (n = 1.6–2.0) and excess
air on the main burners α
1.0 [1, 2]. Conventional
ﬁring systems made it possible to ensure low level of un-
burned carbon at the boiler outlet, while resulting in a
great amount of nitrogen oxides formation. At the mo-
ment, strict requirements related to environmental per-
formance call for the development of new technical solu-
tions for low-NO
ﬁring systems and burners. The use
of 3D multivariate CFD-simulation of ﬁring processes
enables not only accurately checking of technical solu-
tions adopted, but also analysis of the impact of many
ZiO-COTES, Novosibirsk, 630049 Russia;
factors on stability of combustion and NO
the design stage without costly full-scale experiments.
Veriﬁcation involving full-scale experiments proves the
objectivity of selected models and parameters.
1. MAIN TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS
FOR FIRING SYSTEMS
AND BURNER DESIGN
The developed low-NO
ﬁring systems and burner
designs were developed primarily to meet NO
requirements, while maintaining the required boiler ef-
ﬁciency. This can be achieved through the use of new
approaches to the arrangement of combustion processes
in the furnace. First, excess air at the main burners is
< 1.0) through partial air removal from
the main burners into near-wall nozzles and overﬁre air
(OFA). OFA allows for the distribution of the oxidizer
along the vertical of the furnace which leads to multi-
stage combustion (vertical stages). Second, swirl burn-
ers design is improved in order to achieve the combus-
tion of fuel in the ﬂame of each individual burner (hor-
izontal stages). Upgrading of burners involves changed
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