TGFβ family factors play an important role in regulating the balance of self-renewal and differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem and embryonic teratocarcinoma cells. The expression patterns of TGFβ family signaling ligands and functional roles of these signaling pathways differ significantly in mouse and human embryonic stem cells, but the activity and functional role of these factors in mouse and human embryonic teratocarcinoma cells were not sufficiently investigated. Comparative quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression of TGFβ family factors in mouse embryonic stem, embryonic germ, and embryonic teratocarcinoma cells showed that embryonic teratocarcinoma cells express lower ActivinA than pluripotent stem cells but similar levels of factors Nodal, Lefty1, TGFβ1, BMP4, and GDF3. In human nullipotent embryonic teratocarcinoma PA-1 cells, most factors of the TGFβ family (ACTIVINA, NODAL, LEFTY1, BMP4, and GDF3) are expressed at lower levels than in human embryonic stem cells. Thus, in mouse and human nullipotent teratocarcinoma cells, the expression of ActivinA is significantly reduced compared with embryonic stem cells. Presumably, these differences may be associated with changes in the functional activity of the respective signaling pathways and deregulation of proliferative and antiproliferative mechanisms in embryonic teratocarcinoma cells.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 22, 2014
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