Hong Kong is one of the special administrative regions in China and a densely populated city with poor air quality. The impact of high pollutant concentrations, especially ambient particulate matter (PM), on human health is of major concern. This study reported the temporal trends of PM masses and chemical components and assessed the PM pollution-related health risk and mortality burden in Hong Kong over a 22-year period (1995–2016). The results showed that the ambient PM increased before 2005 and then decreased gradually with overall downward trends of − 0.61 μg m−3 year−1 for inhalable PM (PM10) and − 1.30 μg m−3 year−1 for fine PM (PM2.5). No statistically significant changes were observed for secondary inorganic components (SO4 2−, NO3 −, and NH4 +), while significant decreasing trends were found for total carbon (TC) and other water-soluble irons (Na+, Cl−, and K+). The long-term variabilities of the trace elements differed greatly with species. A health risk assessment revealed that the annual inhalational carcinogenic risk from As, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb was always lower than the accepted criterion of 10−6, whereas the total noncarcinogenic risk from As, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Mn frequently exceeded the safe level of 1. Further, a health burden assessment indicated that the annual mean number of premature mortalities attributable to PM2.5 exposure was 2918 (95% CI: 1288, 4279) cases during the period of 2001–2016. Both health risk and mortality burden presented constant reductions in recent years, confirming the health benefits of air pollution control measures and the importance of further mitigation efforts.
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 5, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera