The role of total body irradiation (TBI) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains controversial. Therefore, we investigated long-term treatment outcomes of transplanted ALL patients aiming to identify prognostic factors and the impact of conditioning. We enrolled consecutive ALL patients transplanted from 1990 to 2016, following TBI- or busulfan (Bu)-based conditioning regimen. We studied 151 ALL patients transplanted in first complete remission (CR) (60), other CR (33), or relapsed/refractory disease (58) from sibling (87), and HLA-matched (42) or mismatched (17) unrelated and alternative donors (5). High-dose fractionated TBI-based conditioning was administered in 84. No differences were observed in baseline characteristics, except for disease stage at transplant, donor type, and graft source. With a follow-up of 19.0 (0.5–170.5) in TBI and 14.5 (1.2–319.1) months in non-TBI patients, there was no difference in acute (grades II–IV) or chronic GVHD, thrombotic microangiopathy, and bacterial or fungal infections. Only viral infections were significantly increased in the non-TBI group. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence (CI) of treatment-related or relapse mortality and disease-free or overall survival (OS). In the multivariate analysis, unfavorable pre-transplant predictors of OS were age (p = 0.024), advanced disease stage (p = 0.007), and female-to-male donor (p = 0.006). Interestingly, TBI patients younger than 40 years had significantly higher OS (55.1%, p = 0.023) and DFS (48.6%, p = 0.020). In conclusion, high-dose TBI is feasible in younger patients providing better survival. The choice between TBI- or Bu-conditioning regimens remains challenging.
Annals of Hematology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 5, 2018
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