1022-7954/01/3709- $25.00 © 2001
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 37, No. 9, 2001, pp. 1087–1089. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 37, No. 9, 2001, pp. 1296–1299.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2001 by Volkov, Druzhinin.
One of the major problems in population cytoge-
netic monitoring is to estimate the clustogenic effects in
human populations from localities differing in ecologi-
cal conditions. This is especially important in popula-
tions exposed to a substantial industrial impact, which
is a risk factor increasing genetic instability [1–3]. In
addition to a spatial analysis, monitoring implies a tem-
poral analysis of the genotoxic effects, which makes it
possible to obtain objective data on the dynamics of
ecological–genetic parameters of the environment in a
region under study.
A city of Kemerovo is a large industrial and trans-
port center of Western Siberia and has adverse ecologi-
cal conditions. For instance, total air pollution has been
characterized as hazardous by sanitary epidemiological
inspection for the several recent years .
In this work, we report the results of the long-term
genetic monitoring in groups of adolescents, which are
most sensitive to mutagenic effects .
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The cytogenetic effects were analyzed in adoles-
cents from 1992 to 1996. In total, we examined
202 adolescents (107 males and 95 females) aged 10–
16 years (mean age 14.4 years) from Kemerovo.
For a comparison, we used samples of adolescents
from towns of Anzhero-Sudzhensk and Mezhdurech-
ensk, which are smaller towns with coal industry pre-
dominating and without large industrial estates. The
samples included 29 and 12 adolescents, respectively.
The subjects’ age ranged 15–16 years in these samples.
In the pooled sample of adolescents from Anzhero-
Sudzhensk and Mezhdurechensk, the mean age was
Anamnestic data were collected by interviews and
analysis of individual medical records. Adolescents that
had chronic diseases and were vaccinated and subjected
to radiodiagnostic examination less than 3 months
before data collection were excluded from the analysis.
To obtain chromosome preparations, lymphocytes
were cultured by the standard semimicromethod .
The material was ﬁxed with a cold ethanol–acetic acid
mixture (3 : 1) three times. Cell suspension was placed
in drops on cold clean slides moistened with water.
Preparations were dried over a ﬂame of an ethanol
burner, coded, and stained with 2% Giemsa stain.
Chromosome aberrations were analyzed according
to the standard methods [6, 7]. Achromatic gaps were
scored separately and were not included in the total
aberration number. To evaluate the cytogenetic effects,
the total number and character of chromosome aberra-
tions were established by analyzing at least 100
metaphases for each subject.
Statistical treatment of the results was carried out
with the STATISTICA FOR WINDOWS program
(ver. 5.0). Samples were compared using the Mann–
Whitney nonparametric test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Chromosome aberration frequency was 2.07
0.51% in adolescents from Anzhero-
Sudzhensk and Mezhdurechensk, respectively. These
two samples did not signiﬁcantly differ from each other
> 0.05) and were pooled. Chromosome
aberration frequency was 2.02
0.21% in the pooled
sample and most likely corresponded to a spontaneous
aberration frequency characteristic of the Kuzbass
region. This spontaneous chromosome aberration fre-
quency did not exceed the upper limit of a commonly
accepted normal population level (3%), However, this
Long-Term Monitoring of Cytogenetic Aberrations
in Adolescents of a Large Industrial Town
A. N. Volkov and V. G. Druzhinin
Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo, 650043 Russia; fax: (3842)23-38-85; e-mail: email@example.com
Received February 13, 2001
—Long-term cytogenetic monitoring was carried out in adolescents of the town of Kemerovo. In total,
aberrant metaphase frequency increased from 1.53% in 1992 to 4.40% in 1996 in Kemerovo adolescents, being
signiﬁcantly higher than a control frequency from 1993 to 1996. In all samples, chromosome aberrations mostly
included acentric fragments, while exchanges were rare. The highest number of aberrations per aberrant
metaphase was 2 in Kemerovo adolescents and 1 in the control sample. The observed increase in total number
of chromosome aberrations suggests that the mutagenic effect of chemical environmental pollutants on
Kemerovo adolescents increased over the ﬁve years.