ISSN 1063-0740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2009, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 463–473. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text © V.V. Khalaman, A.D. Naumov, 2009, published in Biologiya Morya.
Waves of population density of live organisms,
which were pointed out by Chetverikov  for the ﬁrst
time are well known now for animals of various groups.
Land inhabitants (mammals, birds, insects, etc.) are the
most studied in this aspect, whereas sea organisms,
except for the ﬁshes of commercial value , are
almost not studied. Mostly this is related to the unavail-
ability of data from long-term observations. However,
the long-term cyclic variations in the abundance of
marine bivalves [1, 5, 6, 9, 11] and eelgrass
 are known.
In the beginning of the 1980s mariculture of the
started to develop in the White
Sea with the participation of the Zoological Institute
(ZIN) of the Russian Academy of Sciences , which
enabled the collection of an extensive material on foul-
ing communities that formed in the upper 3–5 meter
layer of water. The data from long-term monitoring
were used for analysis of the dynamics of a number of
attached animals, including cultured
18, 26]. At the same time, it is well-known that clusters
of mollusks, ascidians and other sedentary organisms
serve as a shelter for a greater number of species, so-
called associated fauna. Polychaetes, as a rule, are the
most numerous of these. Our research is devoted to the
analysis of the long-term dynamics of the population of
polychaetes inhabiting foulings.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The hydrobiological samples taken from substrates
of industrial and experimental facilities for cultivation
, allocated in Chupa Guba and Keret
Archipelago of Kandalaksha Bay in the White Sea
(Fig. 1) were used as the material for the present work.
Materials from 34 hydrobiological surveys conducted
from 1984 to 2005 (444 samples) were used to build
time series (see table). Data for 1987, 1988, 1992,
1996–1998 and 2005 were compiled from several sur-
veys carried in the respective years, for other years the
results of one of the most representative survey carried
in the respective year were used (table).
In all instances the sample was a piece of artiﬁcial
substrate 0.1 m in length with the inhabiting organisms.
The artiﬁcial substrates were tapes of a capron network
with a 20 cm width and 3 m length suspended in the
upper layer of water. In some cases, instead of the net-
work, capron ropes were applied. The samples were
processed using standard hydrobiological techniques.
The species composition, number, and the live mass of
the hydrobionts were determined.
The data on the population density of polychaetes,
counted to one running meter of artiﬁcial substrate,
were applied for the analysis of long-term variation. An
analysis of the time series was implemented using
eigenvector ﬁltering of data by the method of principle
components [11, 16, 21, 24], whose basic idea is
reduced to calculation of the autocorrelation matrix that
forms the base for the principle component analysis.
The factor scores obtained by reverse operation were
restored to the reference values. These calculations
resulted in a series of numbers that corresponded to one
of the distinguished factors .
Long-Term Dynamics of Common Species of Polychaetes
in Fouling Communities of the White Sea
V. V. Khalaman and A. D. Naumov
White Sea Biological Station of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 199034 Russia
Received May 21, 2009
—Based on the data from long-term observations on the development of fouling communities of mus-
sel culture farms in the White Sea, an analysis of dynamics of population density of common polychaete species
was carried out. The expansion of the polychaete
for the past 9 years was recorded.
Cyclic variations of population density were revealed practically in all studied species. The duration of the
period of these cycles varied from 7–8 years (
), 11–14 years (
ica, Harmothoe imbricata, Eulalia viridis, Neoamphitrite ﬁgulus
) and even about 20 years (
). Observable periodic variations in the abundance of polychaetes apparently were not
related to long-term ﬂuctuations of water temperature.
: fouling communities, long-term dynamics, population density, cycles, Polychaeta, White Sea.