This study investigated the extent to which reported gender differences in values are attributable to differences in national culture and organizational seniority. Locus of control and affectivity scores were obtained from 4599 managers and employees in business organizations located in 14 countries. Across nations, men and those in senior positions were more internal and less affective. Gender effects were additional to those attributable to status. Respondents in nations scoring higher on an index of modernity were found to be less internal. A pan-cultural factor analysis of locus of control items yielded four subscales. Men and those in senior positions scored higher on Socio-Political Control and Effort, but no differences were found on the Luck and Active Friendship subscales. The results are contrasted with those obtained from single-nation samples using student subjects.
Sex Roles – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 24, 2007
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