The effects of local anesthetics (LAs), including aminoamides and aminoesters, on the characteristics of single gramicidin A (GA) channels in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers were studied. Aminoamides, namely lidocaine (LDC), prilocaine (PLC), mepivacaine (MPV), and bupivacaine (BPV), reduced the conductance of GA channels. Aminoesters influenced the current fluctuations induced by GA differently; procaine (PC) did not affect the fluctuations, whereas tetracaine (TTC) distinctly reduced the conductance of single GA channels. Using electrophysiological technique, we estimated the changes in the membrane boundary potential at the adsorption of LAs; LDC, PLC, MPV, BPV, and TTC substantially increased, while PC did not affect it. To elucidate which component of the membrane boundary potential, the surface or dipole potential, is responsible for the observed effects of LAs, we employed a fluorescence assay. We found that TTC led to a significant increase in the membrane dipole potential, whereas the adsorption of LDC, PLC, MPV, BPV, and PC did not produce any changes in the membrane dipole potential. We concluded that aminoamides affected the surface potential of lipid bilayers. Together, these data suggest that the effects of LAs on the conductance of single GA channels are caused by their influence on membrane electrostatic potentials; the regulation of GA pores by aminoamides is associated with the surface potential of membranes, whereas TTC modulation of channel properties is predominantly due to changes in dipole potential of lipid bilayers. These data might provide some significant implications for voltage-gated ion channels of cell membranes.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 3, 2016
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