Orbicularis oculi dysfunction may result from local anesthetic injections. In most cases, this complication is transient, yet permanent dysfunction can occur. To minimize the risk of developing this complication, local anesthetics should be judiciously administered in low volume and concentration away from the critical pretarsal orbicularis. Additionally, patients should be counseled preoperatively about the potential risks of local anesthetic use. Level of Evidence: Level IV, prognostic / risk study.
European Journal of Plastic Surgery – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 1, 2014
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