1070-4272/05/7801-0001+2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1!18. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 1,
2005, pp. 3!20.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Kolosnitsyn, Dukhanin, Dumler, Novakov.
Lithium-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes
for Chemical Power Sources
V. S. Kolosnitsyn, G. P. Dukhanin, S. A. Dumler, and I. A. Novakov
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ufa, Bashkortostan, Russia
Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, Russia
Received November 2, 2004
Abstract-Polymer electrolytes for lithium and lithium3ion chemical power sources are described.
Lithium chemical power sources (CPSs) have high
specific electrical characterisitcs and show promise for
power supply to diverse autonomous objects .
The use of Li, which has a high negative potential and
a low electrochemical equivalent (0.259 g A
allowed an increase in the working voltage and specif-
ic energy of such power sources.
Success in development of lithium CPSs was stim-
ulated by a suggestion to use melts of lithium-con-
taining salts and solutions of lithium salts in aprotic
dipolar organic solvents (ADSs) as electrolytes.
However, power sources with a lithium-based anode
and a molten electrolyte have not found wide use
because of problems with structural materials, design,
and service. At the same time, lithium power sources
(and later lithium3ion batteries) with a nonaqueous
(aprotic) electrolyte, despite certain drawbacks, be-
came commercially available. The most widely used
organic solvents in such electrolytes are propylene car-
bonate (PC), ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbo-
nate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), or their mix-
tures; as lithium salts are used perchlorate (LiClO
), and tetrafluoroborate (LiBF
). The electrical
conductivity of the nonaqueous electrolytes is within
Comparative analysis of the characteristics of vari-
ous electrochemical systems  demonstrates advant-
ages of the new generation of batteries: lithium3ion
batteries with liquid (Li3IB) and polymer solid or
thickened electrolyte (PLi3IB). Such systems provide
voltages of 2.733.7 V and have a specific energy of
1503200 W h
, which is 232.5 times higher
compared to the well-known nickel3cadmium and
nickel3metal hydride batteries.
Experts engaged in development and production of
lithium3ion batteries believe that, by 2010, virtually
all the autonomous power sources used in military
equipment will be based on the technology of a lithi-
um3ion battery .
Studies aimed at development of new and improve-
ment of existing working bodies for lithium power
sources are being performed during the whole period
since the development of the first lithium voltaic cell
(more than three decades).
One of promising lines in improvement of lithium
and lithium3ion CPSs is the use of polymer electro-
lytes (PEs), which allows improvement of their energy
and service characteristics and simplification of the
production process. Studies of PEs are being per-
formed since 1970s, and today the electrochemistry
of polymer electrolytes is one of the most actively
developing fields of the modern electrochemistry .
Polymer electrolytes to be used in lithium CPSs
should exhibit good physicomechanical properties,
high ionic and low electronic conductivity, and wide
range of electrochemical stability; they should be inert
toward the electrode materials.
Polymer electrolytes are subdivided into two large
groups with respect to the component composition.
The first group includes PEs that contain no low-
molecular-weight solvent; they contain a high-molecu-
lar-weight polymer, a lithium salt, and (in some cases)
finely dispersed inorganic fillers. Polymer electrolytes
of this type are termed polymer solid electrolytes
(PSEs). The second group includes electrolytes con-
taining, along with polymers, lithium salts, and fillers,
also low-molecular-weight solvents. Electrolytes of