LINING WEAR RESISTANCE
IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE TUNNEL FURNACES
V. A. Perepelitsyn,
L. D. Bocharov,
and I. G. Maryasev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 2, pp. 23 – 36, February, 2009.
Original article submitted August 13, 2008.
This paper continues the presentation of results from observations and studies over many years on lining wear
in tunnel furnaces for firing periclase, periclase-spinelide, and periclase-spinel refractories. New wear data are
given for basic refractories in the major constructional elements in a high-temperature furnace: in the wall lin
ing and in the burner embrasures. The mechanism has been defined for the flaking in wall lining elements, and
some preliminary conclusions are confirmed from earlier studies that provided the basis for recommendations
on upgrading wall lining in tunnel furnaces at the Magnesite Group Corporation.
Keywords: wear resistance, lining, walls, roof, burner embrasures, tunnel furnace, microstructure, zone,
There is an ongoing increase in the production of new
forms of basic refractories together with tightening of the
specifications for items in regular production, and the firing
is increasingly the limiting factor in furnace working and
throughput. In turn, it is found  that the wear resistance of
the wall lining (WL), and the roofs and burner embrasures of
tunnel furnaces (TF) tend to restrict the number and quality
of the products and any increase required in the maximum
temperatures of firing and the time spent at them.
It is expensive to repair TF, which makes it necessary to
identify the causes and mechanism for lining wear and to de
velop methods of increasing the working life . At the
Magnesite Group Corporation, beginning in 1978, there has
been ongoing petrographic monitoring of the state of the TF,
which involves examining the lining of furnaces that have
been shut down for planned and unexpected repairs, which
has been accompanied by sampling the components and the
condensates for chemical, mineralogical, electron micros
copy study, and other such researches, which has then led to
the issue of corresponding conclusions and recommenda
tions. Since 2002, such studies have been performed episodi
In this study, we examined the lining of the walls, the
roofs, and the burner embrasures in TF that have been shut
down for planned repair: TF No. 1 for firing chro-
mite-periclase, periclase-chromite, and alumopericlase com-
ponents in TsMI-1, and in TF No. 6 for firing periclase-chro-
mite components, and TF No. 2 for firing periclase compo-
nents in ZMI
. All the TF were fired with natural gas and op-
erated without shutdowns: TF No. 1 and 6 for six years, and
TF No. 2 for four years and seven months, instead of the five
years planned. The maximum temperatures in the firing
of the channels in TF Nos. 1, 6, and 2 were respec
tively 1600, 1910, and 1710°C. Figure 1 shows the tempera
tures and gas-dynamic conditions for TF No. 6.
As a rule, after a TF had been shut down for repair and it
had cooled, there followed the examination, description, and
photography of the linings of the walls, the roof, and the
burner embrasures, after which the lining was taken down
and specimens were sampled from them and also from the
condensates. The specimens were always selected and trans
ported by the staff of the central factory laboratory (some
times in collaboration with members of the heat engineering
laboratory at the corporation). This ensured quality in the
data and reliability.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 1, 2009
1083-4877/09/5001-0031 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
We are indebted for assistance in working on the articles from
V. A. Sinetskii, R. Sh. Nazmutdinov, A. G. Luzin, D. A. Tere
shchenko, A. A. Platonov, L. M. Mikhailovskaya, D. R. Mel’ni
kova, O. V. Krasnova, T. V. Utrobina, and E. F. Chaika.
VOSTIO Company, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Magnetite Group Corporation, Satka, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia.
TsIM-1 and ZMI are respectively samples of magnesian compo
nents in No. 1 and the magnesian component plant forming part
of the Magnesite Group Corporation.
The term section instead of zone in the furnace is used to avoid
confusion with zones within the components.