1063-0740/03/2901- $25.00 © 2003
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2003, pp. 41–48.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2003 by Biologiya Morya, Zvyagintsev, Korn.
Darwin, 1854 is cos-
mopolitan species inhabiting tropical, subtropical, and
adjacent temperate waters. It is distributed in the inter-
tidal zone and in the upper sublittoral, occurring also on
the vessel bottoms . It is common in brackish
waters  and often associates with polluted areas
. According to the data of Zevina and coauthors ,
that species inhabits hard substrates and fouling in the
Indian Ocean from southeast Africa up to India and
Malaysia; in the Red, Black, and Mediterranean seas;
in the Atlantic Ocean from England to the south coast
of Africa, the Bermudas and the southeast coast of the
United States, the Brazilian coast, and Mexico; and in
the Paciﬁc Ocean around southeast Asia.
is a typical component of fouling of offshore vessels
and water works on the coasts of Vietnam, China, and
In Peter the Great Bay
occurs in foul-
ing of buoys in Nakhodka, Strelok, and Amursky bays
only in warm years according to the data of Zevina and
Gorin . According to the opinion of those authors,
the population of that species is recruited at favorable
temperature conditions for larval transfer by currents
from the coasts of Japan and of delivery of adult repro-
ducing individuals by ocean-going vessels. Rudyakova
in Peter the Great Bay as
the secondary form in type III (tubular sea worms) and
in type IV (tubular sea worms + mussels) of vessel foul-
ing communities. In the opinion of that writer, even a
short-term (about two weeks) stay in cool waters brings
about its death.
In 1975, the numerous subspecies were uniﬁed into
. Larvae of various
subspecies have repeatedly been described in various
areas of the world [14, 18, 20, 22, 24–26, 28], and the most
careful morphological description was conducted for the
population inhabiting the East Australian waters .
The reproductive cycle, growth, and population
dynamics of that species were studied for the southwest
coast of India , the Suez Canal , the Mediterra-
nean Sea , and the Atlantic coast of Argentina [11–13].
, as a common fouling species in the coastal
waters of Japan, is a permanent object of laboratory and
ﬁeld research of Japanese experts [17, 21, 23, 32–34].
A special study of the role of
ing communities and the features of its life cycle in
Peter the Great Bay has not yet been conducted. More-
over, it remains unclear whether
is a per-
manent inhabitant of Peter the Great Bay and whether
it is able to withstand negative water temperatures in
the winter season.
Life History of the Barnacle
and Its Role in Fouling Communities
of Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan
A. Yu. Zvyagintsev and O. M. Korn
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received September 16, 2002
—The life history of the barnacle
Darwin and its role in fouling communities of
Golden Horn Bay (Peter the Great Bay), which is subjected to thermal pollution, were studied. The warm-water
occurs as a common minor species on operational vessels and waterworks in Peter the Great Bay,
where it was brought by ocean-going ships operating on Russia–Japan lines. Even in the conditions of the
higher temperature regime of Golden Horn Bay, the reproductive season of
is conﬁned to the sum-
mer and autumn months. The adult individuals brought by ships in summer produce 2–3 generations of larvae.
The development of larvae and their settling on the substrate occurs from August to October within a broad tem-
perature range from 22.5 up to 12
C. Even in the low temperatures of Golden Horn Bay the larvae attain a
greater size than those in tropical and subtropical waters. The juveniles have time to reach maturity and to pro-
duce their own progeny, but most often they perish with winter drop in the water temperature. It was shown that
in Peter the Great Bay there is dependent population of
inhabiting the anthropogenic substrates
only in the warm season: water works, idle vessels, and operational offshore vessels. The water temperature is
the limiting factor of successful acclimation of that species.
, reproduction, larval development, fouling, dynamics of settling,
anthropogenic substrates, acclimation