Levels, dietary intake, and health risk of potentially toxic metals in vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops in Pakistan

Levels, dietary intake, and health risk of potentially toxic metals in vegetables, fruits, and... Food safety is a major concern worldwide and human beings are frequently exposed to potentially toxic metals (PTMs) through consumption of vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops grown in contaminated areas. The present study investigates the concentrations of PTMs such as chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from different markets of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of fruits (banana, tangerine, apple, and guava), vegetables (tomato, onion, potato, pea, and lady finger), and cereals (rice, kidney beans, and chick peas) were acid-extracted and analyzed using ICP-MS. The concentrations of Cr, Zn, Pb, As, and Cd in fruits (54, 50, 50, 45, and 4% samples, respectively), vegetables (53, 43, 63, 80, and 46%), and cereals (37, 62, 25, 70, and 25%) exceeded their respective permissible limits set by FAO/WHO (2001). The results showed that the highest mean concentration was observed for Ni (14.95 mg/kg), Pb (0.57 mg/kg), and Cd (0.27 mg/kg) in vegetables followed by fruits and cereals. However, the highest mean concentration of As (0.44 mg/kg) was observed in cereal crops followed by vegetables and fruits. The individual health risk of PTMs via consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals were found within safe limits for adults and children. Nevertheless, the total HRI values (fruits + vegetables + cereals) for Ni, As, and Cd for both adults and children were observed > 1 and may posed potential risk for the community consuming these foodstuffs on a daily basis. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Environmental Science and Pollution Research Springer Journals

Levels, dietary intake, and health risk of potentially toxic metals in vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops in Pakistan

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature
Subject
Environment; Environment, general; Environmental Chemistry; Ecotoxicology; Environmental Health; Atmospheric Protection/Air Quality Control/Air Pollution; Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution
ISSN
0944-1344
eISSN
1614-7499
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11356-017-0764-x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Food safety is a major concern worldwide and human beings are frequently exposed to potentially toxic metals (PTMs) through consumption of vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops grown in contaminated areas. The present study investigates the concentrations of PTMs such as chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from different markets of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of fruits (banana, tangerine, apple, and guava), vegetables (tomato, onion, potato, pea, and lady finger), and cereals (rice, kidney beans, and chick peas) were acid-extracted and analyzed using ICP-MS. The concentrations of Cr, Zn, Pb, As, and Cd in fruits (54, 50, 50, 45, and 4% samples, respectively), vegetables (53, 43, 63, 80, and 46%), and cereals (37, 62, 25, 70, and 25%) exceeded their respective permissible limits set by FAO/WHO (2001). The results showed that the highest mean concentration was observed for Ni (14.95 mg/kg), Pb (0.57 mg/kg), and Cd (0.27 mg/kg) in vegetables followed by fruits and cereals. However, the highest mean concentration of As (0.44 mg/kg) was observed in cereal crops followed by vegetables and fruits. The individual health risk of PTMs via consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals were found within safe limits for adults and children. Nevertheless, the total HRI values (fruits + vegetables + cereals) for Ni, As, and Cd for both adults and children were observed > 1 and may posed potential risk for the community consuming these foodstuffs on a daily basis.

Journal

Environmental Science and Pollution ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Dec 8, 2017

References

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