We examined the relative contribution of visual abilities, accessibility of letter names, and phonological awareness, to text reading speed and accuracy of Arabic in first, third, and fifth grades. The results revealed that for all levels of skill, phonological awareness contributes significantly to reading accuracy, to the same degree. For reading speed, letter naming speed is crucial in first and fifth grade, whereas phonological awareness is crucial in third grade. These patterns differ from those found of readers of other scripts and are interpreted in the context of diglossia, and the visual aspects of the Arabic orthography.
Reading and Writing – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 2013
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