ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 4, pp. 536!541. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text + E.S. Kshumaneva, A.G. Kasikov, 2007, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 4, pp. 549!554.
AND INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Leaching-out of Residues of Carbonyl Nickel Synthesis
with Iron(III) Chloride Solutions
E. S. Kshumaneva and A. G. Kasikov
Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Resources, Kola Scientific Center,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, Murmansk oblast, Russia
Received October 16, 2006
Abstract-Behavior of the phase components of residues of carbonyl nickel synthesis in leaching with
an iron(III) chloride solution was studied.
The development of hydrometallurgical processes
as an alternative to pyrometallurgical processing of
sulfide materials has given rise to technologies based
on use of iron(III) chloride as a leaching agent .
The use of this reagent is advantageous in that no
sulfur(IV) oxide is released in the process and leach-
ing of high-complex materials can be carried out un-
der normal pressure.
These advantages have favored the development of
new kinds of processing of such materials as scrap
metal, copper-nickel mattes, and complex nickel and
copper sulfide concentrates. A significant progress has
been achieved in application of chloride processes
in the metallurgy of nickel; these techniques are em-
ployed at three plants processing copper-nickel and
nickel converter matte and nickel-cobalt sulfide con-
centrate: Kristiansand (Norway), Sanouville (France),
and Niihama (Japan) .
Hydrochloride processes developed by the follow-
ing companies are known in the metallurgy of copper:
Cuprus Metallurgical (Cymet), Duval (CLEAR),
Minemet Recherche, Henkel, and US Mining Bureau.
Also known are processes developed by MINTEK,
Cominco, Cuprex, and Great Central Mines, which
have passed the stage of large-scale laboratory and
industrial tests [2, 3].
In addition to processing of the raw materials men-
tioned above, the feasibility of application of hydro-
chloride leaching directly to nickel ores and slags
has been considered [4, 5].
In these reports are represented, with varied extent
of understanding, mechanisms and decomposition
rates of copper and nickel phase components of ma-
terials involved in processing. There is virtually no
published evidence concerning the behavior of cobalt
sulfides in hydrochloride leaching. At the same time,
a low, compared with nickel, recovery of cobalt has
been mentioned in a number of reports devoted to
hydrochloride leaching of copper-nickel sulfide min-
erals . The explanations given were undetailed
and had a probabilistic nature.
In the context of the available published data,
the possibility and specific features of leaching, with
the above-mentioned solutions, of residues of carbon-
yl nickel synthesis (RCS) were studied. These resi-
dues are a sulfide product whose phase composition
is represented by a complex multicomponent phase
(M = Co, Ni, Fe, Cu) including the nickel
, cobalt Co
, and copper Cu
ponents and chalcosine Cu
S [8, 9].
Experiments were performed with RCS,
were decarbonylated by keeping under a vacuum at
the boiling point of nickel carbonyl (~45oC) and had
the following composition (wt %): Ni 3.8, Co 14.0,
Cu 33.0, Fe 4.4, S 18.9, and total platinum metals
~0.2. The specific surface area of RCS was 7.5 m
which made it possible to exclude fine grinding of
the material, the basic procedure providing a satisfac-
tory recovery of valuable components.
Supplied by Severonikel’ combine, Kola Mining-and Smelt-