Large-scale assessment of avalanche and debris ﬂow
hazards in the Sakhalin region, Russian Federation
Received: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published online: 23 June 2016
Ó Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016
Abstract We explore the challenges of avalanche and debris ﬂow hazard assessment for
urban areas exposed in the Sakhalin region. Avalanches are a threat to more than 60
settlements in the region and debris ﬂows to more than 30. Data are provided for avalanche
and debris ﬂow events that occurred in the Sakhalin region between 1928 and 2015. In this
paper, the method for the design of hazard maps for snow avalanches and debris ﬂows is
described, providing the starting point for any planning constraints in general settlement
planning schemes. These maps further allow conducting an assessment of avalanche and
debris ﬂow risk within a short time period for a larger territory and at minimum cost.
Keywords Snow avalanches Á Debris ﬂows Á Hazard Á Loss assessment Á Risk Á Mitigation Á
Urban areas in mountain and sub-mountain regions are regularly threatened by snow
avalanches and debris ﬂow, leading to considerable economic loss and loss of lives.
Therefore, the assessment of such hazards and associated risks is a continuing challenge in
different mountain regions of the world, such as in Canada (Stethem et al. 2003), the USA
(Borden and Cutter 2008; Spencer and Ashley 2011), the European Alps (Fuchs et al.
2015), the Caucasus (Gracheva and Urushadze 2011), the Khibiny mountains (Kola
peninsula, Vikulina 2009; Fuchs et al. 2013) and the Sakhalin region (Seliverstov et al.
2008; Kazakova and Lobkina 2013).
& Ekaterina Kazakova
Sakhalin Department of Far East Geological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of
Science, Gorkogo st., 25, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia
Nat Hazards (2017) 88:S237–S251