Landslide generated impulse waves. 2. Hydrodynamic impact craters

Landslide generated impulse waves. 2. Hydrodynamic impact craters Landslide generated impulse waves were investigated in a two-dimensional physical laboratory model based on the generalized Froude similarity. Digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to the landslide impact and wave generation. Areas of interest up to 0.8 m by 0.8 m were investigated. PIV provided instantaneous velocity vector fields in a large area of interest and gave insight into the kinematics of the wave generation process. Differential estimates such as vorticity, divergence, and elongational and shear strain were extracted from the velocity vector fields. At high impact velocities flow separation occurred on the slide shoulder resulting in a hydrodynamic impact crater, whereas at low impact velocities no flow detachment was observed. The hydrodynamic impact craters may be distinguished into outward and backward collapsing impact craters. The maximum crater volume, which corresponds to the water displacement volume, exceeded the landslide volume by up to an order of magnitude. The water displacement caused by the landslide generated the first wave crest and the collapse of the air cavity followed by a run-up along the slide ramp issued the second wave crest. The extracted water displacement curves may replace the complex wave generation process in numerical models. The water displacement and displacement rate were described by multiple regressions of the following three dimensionless quantities: the slide Froude number, the relative slide volume, and the relative slide thickness. The slide Froude number was identified as the dominant parameter. Experiments in Fluids Springer Journals

Landslide generated impulse waves. 2. Hydrodynamic impact craters

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