Landslide generated impulse waves were investigated in a two-dimensional physical laboratory model based on the generalized Froude similarity. Digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to the landslide impact and wave generation. Areas of interest up to 0.8 m by 0.8 m were investigated. The challenges posed to the measurement system in an extremely unsteady three-phase flow consisting of granular matter, air, and water were considered. The complex flow phenomena in the first stage of impulse wave initiation are: high-speed granular slide impact, slide deformation and penetration into the fluid, flow separation, hydrodynamic impact crater formation, and wave generation. During this first stage the three phases are separated along sharp interfaces changing significantly within time and space. Digital masking techniques are applied to distinguish between phases thereafter allowing phase separated image processing. PIV provided instantaneous velocity vector fields in a large area of interest and gave insight into the kinematics of the wave generation process. Differential estimates such as vorticity, divergence, elongational, and shear strain were extracted from the velocity vector fields. The fundamental assumption of irrotational flow in the Laplace equation was confirmed experimentally for these non-linear waves. Applicability of PIV at large scale as well as to flows with large velocity gradients is highlighted.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 9, 2003
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