International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Knowledge of and readiness for medication therapy management
among community pharmacists in Lebanon
· Hala Sacre
· Nathalie Lahoud
· Georges Sili
· Pascale Salameh
Received: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018
© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018
Background To follow international standards, the Lebanese Order of Pharmacists would like to start to implement the
medication therapy management in community pharmacies. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate community
pharmacists’ knowledge of and readiness for medication therapy management. Setting Community pharmacists from all
Lebanese regions. Method A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted. Pharmacists at their workplace
completed self-administered anonymous standardized questionnaires between June and December 2016, with no compensa-
tion in return. Statistical analysis was conducted using bi-variate and multi-variable methods. Main outcome measure The
major dependent variable of interest was the willingness to engage in medication therapy management activities. Results
While only 376 (46%) of the interviewed pharmacists declared to be familiar with this concept, the majority of interviewed
pharmacists 646 (78.8%) agreed on the importance of patient-centered care. Although this service will not be remunerated at
this stage, 529 (64.5%) were willing to attend advanced training sessions to become actively engaged in medication therapy
management, particularly those who had adequate workﬂow, staﬀ and time at their workplace (aOR = 1.51; p = 0.045) and
those agreeing to review a patient’s medication proﬁle and provide interventions as part of their role (aOR = 6.10; p < 0.001).
Conclusion Lebanese pharmacists have adequate knowledge and a positive attitude towards medication therapy management
services implementation; however, barriers could arise such as inadequate time, workﬂow and physical space. Eﬀorts should
be exerted by the Lebanese Order of Pharmacist to extend the role of the pharmacist and its positive eﬀect on patient outcome.
Keywords Community pharmacy · Implementation · Knowledge · Lebanon · Medication therapy management · Readiness
Impacts on Practice
Lebanese pharmacists have a positive attitude towards
medication therapy management, of which implementa-
tion is expected to be smooth.
Lebanese patients would beneﬁt from the provision of
medication therapy management through better medica-
tion eﬃcacy and safety.
The implementation of medication therapy management
is expected to positively impact on the health care system
through improving patient’s compliance and minimizing
medication errors and overprescribing.
Souraya Domiati and Hala Sacre: ﬁrst co-authors.
* Hala Sacre
Pharmacology and Therapeutics Department, Faculty
of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon
Drug Information Center, Lebanese Order of Pharmacists,
Continuing Education Department, Lebanese Order
of Pharmacists, Beirut, Lebanon
INSPECT-LB: Institut National de Santé Publique,
Epidémiologie Clinique et Toxicologie, Faculty of Public
Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon