Kinetics of the Ion Exchange of Lead and Sodium Cations
on the Surface of Iron–Manganese Concretions
D. E. Chirkst, O. V. Cheremisina, M. V. Ivanov, and I. T. Zhadovskii
St. Petersburg State Mining Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received March 31, 2009
Abstract—Kinetic characteristics (rate constants and activation energy) of the sorption of lead cations by iron–
manganese concretions were studied.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 9, pp. 1540–1543. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © D.E. Chirkst, O.V. Cheremisina, M.V. Ivanov, I.T. Zhadovskii, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 9,
At present, the sorption recovery of metals,
including lead, from technological solutions and
wastewater find increasingly wide use owing to the
high efficiency of the method and absence of
It has been suggested to purify wastewater from
metallurgical plants and artesian potable water to
remove iron cations (2+) by using iron–manganese
concretions (IMCs), which can extract iron cations
(2+) from wastewater without special-purpose
oxidizing agents necessary for conversion of Fe
. IMCs are also promising for purification of water
to remove lead cations.
The aim of this study was to examine the kinetics
of sorption of lead cations (2+) on IMCs and to
determine the mechanism and the rate-determining
stage of this process.
The ore part of IMCs is mainly represented by iron
and manganese hydroxides, whereas nonferrous metals
are isomorphically bound to minerals of manganese
and iron . The IMCs are ready-for-use rounded
grains with a dispersion composition suitable for bulk
Table 1 compares the chemical composition of
concretions, determined by X-ray fluorescence
technique, with that reported in .
Natural samples of iron–manganese concretions
contain various exchangeable cations, and, therefore,
the IMCs were converted to the sodium form prior to
experiments, because sodium ions are most easily
displaced by other cations .
The rate of sorption of Pb(2+) cations on IMCs was
studied under static conditions. A flask filled with a
salt solution under study, with a concentration
of 0.018–0.022 M in terms of Pb(2+), was placed in a
thermostat and thermostated at various temperatures,
granulometric compositions, and agitation rates. The
ratio between the volume V (ml) of the liquid phase
and the mass m (g) of a solid sample was V/m = 100.
Content, wt %, found
by X-ray fluorescence
content, wt %,
Total Mn in terms
Sr 0.263 0.0027
Cu 0.339 0.0034
Pb 0.449 0.0034
Zn 0.074 0.0057
Table 1. Chemical composition of concretions from the