ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 5, pp. 809í815. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © N.K. Kitaeva, D.A. Skobeev, S.M. Merkov, 2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 5, pp. 677í683.
Kinetics of Removal of Dissolved Iron from Natural Water
N. K. Kitaeva, D. A. Skobeev, and S. M. Merkov
Obninsk Center for Science and Technologies, ul. Gor’kogo 4, Obninsk, Kaluga oblast, 249033 Russia
Received February 20, 2016
Abstract—The relationships of iron(II) oxidation in water using a new type of aerator based on a disk disperser
were studied. The oxidation rate constants and the iron(II) to iron(III) half-conversion time were determined. The
iron(II) oxidation in water follows a ﬁ rst-order rate equation. Changes in the water quality parameters depending
on the conditions of the iron(II) oxidation were analyzed.
Obtaining potable water is one of the most urgent
problems of the mankind today. Problems with potable
water supply are caused not only by its shortage, but
also by intense chemical and microbiological pollution
of potable water supply sources.
According to the WHO data, about 25% of the
Earth’s population runs into the risk of diseases caused
by using polluted potable water .
One of the most important parameters of the potable
water quality is the iron content. Excess iron content
of water impairs its organoleptic properties: Unpleas-
ant odor and speciﬁ c astringent taste appear [2, 3]. Ac-
cording to SanPiN (Sanitation Rules and Regulations)
220.127.116.115–02, the maximum permissible concentration
(MPC) of iron in water is 0.3 mg dm
. In accor-
dance with the EU quality standards for potable water,
the permissible concentration of iron should not exceed
0.2 mg dm
[1, 4]. Increased iron content of potable
water not only deteriorates its odor and taste, but also af-
fects the human health. Excess iron can lead to diseases
of liver and kidneys, to intestinal dysfunction, to skin
reddening and dryness, to decreased immunity, and to
hormonal dysfunctions .
According to [5, 6], about 50% of natural water
sources in Russia contain iron in concentrations many
times higher than MPC; therefore, drinking of such
water without pretreatment is inadmissible.
Data on the iron content of natural waters of the Oka–
Tarusa and Protvino aquifers of Kaluga oblast, used for
household and potable water supply of the population
(in particular, of Obninsk), are given as example in
Table 1 [7, 8].
Thus, water treatment to remove iron compounds is a
topical problem for supplying the population with high-
The choice of the method for iron removal from
water depends both on the parameters of the water
to be puriﬁ ed (iron speciation in water, amount of
dissolved oxygen, pH, salt composition, etc.) and on the
requirements to the puriﬁ ed water.
In surface water sources, iron is usually present in
the oxide form as trivalent ions (mainly incorporated in
organic complexes) and as colloids and ﬁ nely dispersed
suspensions. In underground sources (artesian sources,
aquifers, groundwater, water under river beds, springs)
Table 1. Total iron content of waters from Obninsk water
Water supply site Total iron content, mg dm