The sorption behaviour of Pb(II) ions onto activated carbon prepared from Citrus limettioides peel (CLPC) and seed (CLSC), which is a novel waste material, was evaluated as a function of contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, ionic strength, initial metal ion concentration and temperature in batch adsorption processes with raw Citrus limettioides peel (CLP) and seed (CLS). The maximum uptake of lead(II) ions was obtained at pH range 4.0–6.0 for CLPC, CLSC and 5.0–6.0 for raw materials (CLP, CLS). The optimal contact time was found to be 3 h. Surface morphology and functionality of the adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The equilibrium data fit well with the Langmuir isotherm, confirming monolayer coverage of lead(II) ions onto CLP, CLPC, CLS and CLSC. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of CLP, CLPC, CLS and CLSC was found to be 123.60, 166.67, 15.32 and 142.86 mg/g. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Kinetic studies demonstrated that adsorption of lead(II) ions followed a pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting that the adsorption process is presumably chemisorption. The adsorbents were tested for removal of Pb(II) from electroplating wastewater in connection with the reuse and selectivity of the adsorbents.
Research on Chemical Intermediates – Springer Journals
Published: May 29, 2015
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