Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 2, pp. 231−235.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text
D.E. Chirkst, O.V. Cheremisina, M.V. Ivanov, A.A. Chistyakov, I.T. Zhadovskii, 2009, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii,
2009, Vol. 82, No. 2, pp. 238−242.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Isotherm of Exchange of Sodium and Copper Cations
on Ferrimanganese Concretions
D. E. Chirkst, O. V. Cheremisina, M. V. Ivanov, A. A. Chistyakov, and I. T. Zhadovskii
St. Petersburg State Mining Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received September 17, 2008
Abstract—Isotherm of ion exchange of Cu
cations on ferrimanganese concretions was studied. The
ion exchange is described by an equation similar to that of the Langmuir isotherm. The limiting sorption and
apparent ion-exchange constant were calculated.
Copper(II) compounds are found in wastewater from
ore-dressing factories, plants manufacturing electrolytic
copper, galvanic shops of various plants, and artiﬁ cial
ﬁ ber factories; mine water may contain copper(II) in
amounts of micrograms to grams per liter.
As a rule, acid wastewater and waste technological
solutions formed in metal processing contain cations of
nonferrous metals in amounts exceeding the maximum
permissible concentrations (MPC) and are presently
puriﬁ ed by the reagent method. Treatment of wastewater
with alkaline reagents makes it possible, in most cases, to
diminish the content of ions to values that allow discharge
of puriﬁ ed water into sewerage system of settlements or
into water basins serving as household or community
water sources. However, in those cases when a deeper
purification of wastewater is necessary, e.g., for its
discharge into ﬁ shery basins, use of only alkaline reagents
fails to produce the necessary effect .
As an alternative technique for deeper puriﬁ cation
to remove heavy metal cations serve sorption and ion
exchange, which enable recovery of nonferrous metals
from wastewater with various salt compositions to
diminish their concentration to MPC, 0.1 mg l
ﬁ shery basins.
A promising natural sorbent for purification of
wastewater and waste technological solutions are
ferrimanganese concretions (FMCs) [2, 3].
FMC deposits widely occur over the bottom area of
the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, being mostly found
at the sea bottom surface .
Two types of deposits can be distinguished in the Gulf
of Finland. Deposits of the ﬁ rst type are situated at depths
of 60 m and more in the southern and northern parts of
the Gulf of Finland. In these deposits, concretions are
represented by spherical formations with grain sizes of
1–2 to 30 mm (predominant diameter 1–16 mm), strength
of 100 kPa (1 kg cm
), and density of 1.6 g cm
estimates of the concretion resources in this region give
25–30 million tons, which corresponds to a continental
deposit of medium proﬁ tability.
Another deposit lies at smaller depth of 25–30 m in
Kopor’e Bay. Here, the predominant concretion diameter
is 3–5 mm, more rarely 15–30 mm. In the summer of
2000, ﬁ rst 2500 tons of a concretion-bearing material
were recovered from a depth of about 30 mm in Kopor’e
Bay in the course of prospecting works .
The technology of FMC mining has been developed
at St. Petersburg Mining Institute . The possibility
is studied of utilization of worked-out concretions by
the pyrometallurgical method at metallurgical plants
by techniques involving recovery of nonferrous metals:
manganese, copper, cobalt, and nickel [6, 7].
Studies of the material composition of FMCs have
shown that the main part of the ore component is
represented by iron and manganese hydroxides, and
nonferrous metals are isomorphically bound to minerals
of manganese and iron. A characteristic feature of FMCs
is their hygroscopicity resulting from the developed
surface of the material (porosity 58%). The ecologically
pure FMC material has the form of ready-for-use rounded