Isolation and identification Candida vulvovaginitis in women
referred to health centers of Arak City and antifungal activity
of Equisetum arvense and Quercus on Candida albicans
Azadeh Karami Robati
Received: 20 December 2016 /Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published online: 13 May 2017
Springer-Verlag London 2017
Abstract Among the vulvovaginal infections, the second
prevalent infection is vulvovaginal candidiasis which is creat-
ed due to abnormal growth of Candida species in genital sys-
tem of the women. Equisetum arvense is regarded as an effec-
tive drug in treatment of wounds. Quercus has been also used
for treatment of many diseases. This study investigated 152
patients suspicious of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Seventy-five
isolates were identified from 152 isolates of Candida
albicans, and 55 yeast isolates were identified as
non-albicans (Candida krusei, Candida glabrata,and
Candida tropicalis), and 22 yeast isolates were unidentified.
In broth microdilution method, MIC
was reported as 12.5 μl/
ml in Candida albicans for Equisetum arvense and Quercus,
and MFC was reported as 25 μl/ml for both plants. In this
research, isolation of Candida albicans species is more than
that of non-albicans species.
Candidiasis is one of the most important opportunistic fungal
diseases in human (Karami Robati et al. 2014. Einollahi et al.
2008) All types of its clinical manifestations depend on fungal
virulence, toxic products, the host immune system, and the
attacked site (Nicolle et al. 2011. Kordbacheh et al. 2005).
One of the prevalent forms is vulvovaginal candidiasis which
is created due to abnormal proliferation of Candida yeasts
which are created in vaginal system of women (Geiger et al.
1995). Most common symptoms is vaginal itching that more
severe in premenstrual with yellowish secretions and
pseudomembranous in vaginal mucus surface (Pakshir et al.
2004. Zarrin and Mahmoudabadi 2009). Usually these secre-
tions are white discharge with an unpleasant odor appears
(Sobel 2005. Zaini et al. 2004). Candida albicans is the most
common Candida spp. causing various forms of clinical,
followed by C.glabrata, C.tropicalisand and C.parapsilosis
(Taghi Hedayati et al. 2015. Pfaller and Diekema 2007).
There are different methods for identification of Candida spe-
cies which are divided into phenotype and genotype.
Phenotypic features include morphology, biochemistry, phys-
iology of yeasts, and specific medium such as CHROMagar
Candida medium (Karami Robati et al. 2014). There are dif-
ferent genotypic methods such as the use of specific primers in
PCR, Multiplex-PCR ‘PCR-RFLP’ real-time (Ayatollahi
Mousavi et al. 2012. Yeo and Wong 1994). Considering inci-
dence of drug resistances and emergence resistant strains, it is
necessary to determine drug susceptibility patterns (Denning
2003). Natural medicines particularly herbs are sometimes
applied in treatment (Gupte et al. 2002.Baltz2006). The herbs
were never withdrawn. Since the effective matters in herb
have a biological balance state, they will not be accumulated
in body and not create side effect. For this reason, they are
preferred over chemical medicines.
* Azadeh Karami Robati
Department of Veterinary Mycology, Science and Research Branch,
Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran
Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public
Health Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Microbiology, Arak Faculty of Medical Sciences,
Islamic Azad University of Arak, Tehran, Iran
Comp Clin Pathol (2017) 26:1057–1061