Is There Evidence for Late Cognitive Decline in Chronic Schizophrenia?

Is There Evidence for Late Cognitive Decline in Chronic Schizophrenia? Schizophrenia (SZP) has been historically referred to as “dementia praecox” because of the recognition that its onset is associated with deficits in memory, attention and visuospatial orientation. We wondered whether there is evidence for additional cognitive decline late in the course of chronic SZP. This review examined the evidence (1) for cognitive decline late in the course of chronic SZP, (2) for how often the late cognitive decline occurs, and (3) whether the cognitive decline in late-life SZP is related to pathophysiology of SZP versus the superimposition of another type of dementia. A PUBMED search was performed combining the MESH terms schizophrenia and dementia, cognitive decline, cognitive impairment and cognitive deficits. A manual search of article bibliographies was also performed. We included longitudinal clinical studies employing standard tests of cognition. Cross-sectional studies and those that did not test cognition through standard cognitive tests were excluded. The initial search produced 3898 studies. Employing selection criteria yielded twenty-three studies. Our data extraction tool included the number of patients in the study, whether a control group was present, the age of patients at baseline and follow-up, the study setting (inpatients versus outpatients), the cognitive tests employed, study duration, and results. Only three longitudinal studies tested for dementia using Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (DSM) or International classification of disease (ICD) criteria and compared them to controls: two studies demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of dementia and one did not. Twenty longitudinal studies tested for one or more cognitive domains without employing standard criteria for dementia: twelve studies demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of cognitive decline and eight did not. Studies generally did not control for known risk factors for cognitive impairment such as education, vascular risk factors, apolipoprotein (ApoE) genotype and family history. The evidence for late cognitive decline in SZP is mixed, but, slightly more studies suggest that it occurs. If it occurs, it is unclear whether it is related to SZP or other risks for cognitive impairment. Hence, prospective, longitudinal, controlled studies are needed to confirm that there is progressive cognitive decline in chronic SZP which occurs independent of other risk factors for cognitive impairment. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Psychiatric Quarterly Springer Journals

Is There Evidence for Late Cognitive Decline in Chronic Schizophrenia?

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/is-there-evidence-for-late-cognitive-decline-in-chronic-schizophrenia-P5RBIJdJiD
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Subject
Medicine & Public Health; Psychiatry; Public Health; Sociology, general
ISSN
0033-2720
eISSN
1573-6709
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11126-011-9189-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Schizophrenia (SZP) has been historically referred to as “dementia praecox” because of the recognition that its onset is associated with deficits in memory, attention and visuospatial orientation. We wondered whether there is evidence for additional cognitive decline late in the course of chronic SZP. This review examined the evidence (1) for cognitive decline late in the course of chronic SZP, (2) for how often the late cognitive decline occurs, and (3) whether the cognitive decline in late-life SZP is related to pathophysiology of SZP versus the superimposition of another type of dementia. A PUBMED search was performed combining the MESH terms schizophrenia and dementia, cognitive decline, cognitive impairment and cognitive deficits. A manual search of article bibliographies was also performed. We included longitudinal clinical studies employing standard tests of cognition. Cross-sectional studies and those that did not test cognition through standard cognitive tests were excluded. The initial search produced 3898 studies. Employing selection criteria yielded twenty-three studies. Our data extraction tool included the number of patients in the study, whether a control group was present, the age of patients at baseline and follow-up, the study setting (inpatients versus outpatients), the cognitive tests employed, study duration, and results. Only three longitudinal studies tested for dementia using Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (DSM) or International classification of disease (ICD) criteria and compared them to controls: two studies demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of dementia and one did not. Twenty longitudinal studies tested for one or more cognitive domains without employing standard criteria for dementia: twelve studies demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of cognitive decline and eight did not. Studies generally did not control for known risk factors for cognitive impairment such as education, vascular risk factors, apolipoprotein (ApoE) genotype and family history. The evidence for late cognitive decline in SZP is mixed, but, slightly more studies suggest that it occurs. If it occurs, it is unclear whether it is related to SZP or other risks for cognitive impairment. Hence, prospective, longitudinal, controlled studies are needed to confirm that there is progressive cognitive decline in chronic SZP which occurs independent of other risk factors for cognitive impairment.

Journal

Psychiatric QuarterlySpringer Journals

Published: Aug 24, 2011

References

  • Late and very-late first-contact schizophrenia and the risk of dementia–a nationwide register based study
    Kørner, A; Lopez, AG; Lauritzen, L
  • Increased levels of apolipoprotein E in the frontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia
    Dean, B; Laws, SM; Hone, E
  • Possible effect of the APOE epsilon 4 allele on the hippocampal volume and asymmetry in schizophrenia
    Hata, T; Kunugi, H; Nanko, S

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off