ISSN 10214437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2010, Vol. 57, No. 5, pp. 620–630. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © N.R. Meychik, I.P. Yermakov, S.D. Khonarmand, Yu.I. Nikolaeva, 2010, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2010, Vol. 57, No.5, pp. 665–675.
Extreme environmental conditions are among the
most common factors affecting the functions of plant
organisms and vegetation patterns. Excessive content
of sodium and chloride ions in soil exerts hyperos
motic and toxic influence on plant growth. The main
tenance of growth under these conditions is related to
modification of multiple physiological functions,
including the regulation of osmotic and water homeo
stasis. This regulation relies on interactions between
processes occurring in the cytoplasm and the cell wall
Presently, the cell wall is considered as an elaborate
dynamic cell compartment that performs significant
functions during plant growth and development. This
extracellular compartment is the first frontier contacting
the outer solution of the plasmalemma microenviron
ment. Ion exchange between the medium and ionogenic
groups in the polymeric cellwall matrix modifies the
composition of microenvironment, thus affecting the
entry of nutrients into plant roots. The effectiveness of
this modification depends on physicochemical proper
ties of cell walls, these properties being controlled by the
whole cell .
Despite considerable progress in studying the com
position and properties of cellwall polysaccharides,
structural proteins, and enzymes, scarce studies
addressed the influence of stress factors, including
salinity, on processes occurring in this compartment.
The role of cell wall as a source of signals initiating
plant defense responses is a widely discussed topic.
However, little is known about the contribution of cell
walls to the salinity resistance in plants.
Only few publications focused on functioning of
plant cell walls as natural ion exchangers under condi
tions of soil salinity [3–5]. There were practically no
attempts to quantify the ionexchange capacity of cell
walls under these conditions.
The aim of this work was to investigate ion
exchange properties and swelling capacity of the poly
meric matrix for cell walls isolated from roots and
shoots of two chickpea cultivars with different sensitiv
ity to salinity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
L.) is an
agricultural crop cultivated in areas with various soil
and climatic conditions. We used 20dayold plants of
three varieties: Bivanij, Hachem, and ILC 482. Seeds
were germinated for 3 days on a wet filter paper in a ther
in darkness. The seedlings were then
transferred into 3liter pots (20 plants per pot) with the
Pryanishnikov nutrient solution containing NH
, KCl, CaSO
IonExchange Properties of Cell Walls in Chickpea Cultivars
with Different Sensitivities to Salinity
N. R. Meychik, I. P. Yermakov, S. D. Khonarmand, and Yu. I. Nikolaeva
Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia;
Received April 27, 2009
—Ionexchange properties of polymeric matrices were compared for cell wall preparations isolated
from roots and shoots of two cultivars of
L. (cvs. Bivanij and ILC 482) with different sensitiv
ities to salinity. Irrespective of growth conditions, the cell walls contained four types of ionogenic groups:
amino groups, carboxyl groups of uronic and hydroxycinnamic acids, and phenolic hydroxyl groups. Regard
less of the salt concentration in the medium, the cells walls of different chickpea cultivars and from different
organs of the same plant were similar in qualitative composition of ionogenic groups, although quantities of
ionogenic groups per unit dry wt of cell walls varied depending on external and internal factors. Irrespective
of the external medium salinity, the cationexchange capacity of cell walls, expressed per unit dry wt,
decreased in a sequence: stem > root ~ bottom leaves > upper leaves. The volume of chickpea cell walls was
found to vary depending on ionic composition and pH of the incubation medium. The results were analyzed
in the context of cell wall involvement in responses of
to elevated salinity.
Key words: Cicer arietinum,
salinity, cell walls, ionogenic groups, swelling.
HCA–hydroxycinnamic acids; PGA—polygalac