Physical Oceanography, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2006
EXPERIMENTAL AND FIELD RESEARCH
INVESTIGATION OF WIND-INDUCED SOLITARY WAVES
IN A CIRCULAR AEROHYDROCHANNEL
P. V. Mochulin and N. K. Shelkovnikov
The mechanisms of initiation and interaction of wind-induced solitary waves in a circular aero-
hydrochannel are experimentally investigated. We study the influence of flotation (floating
mass) and surface-active substances on the time of formation of a soliton and its parameters. It is
shown that the increase in the concentration of surface-active substances and the amount of flota-
tion leads to an increase in the time of initiation wind-induced solitary wave. It is shown that, in
the case of small difference between the amplitudes of the interacting solitons, they behave as
particles. In the case where the difference between the amplitudes is significant, the larger
soliton passes through the smaller, which leads to the formation of a single soliton as a result of
multiple interaction between the original solitons.
It is well known that solitary waves were discovered by Russel in 1834 . Later, this phenomenon was
studied by numerous other authors. Thus, Boussinesq and Rayleigh proposed an approximate mathematical de-
scription of the form and velocity of solitary waves in shallow water. In 1895, Korteweg and de Vries deduced
an equation for the description of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersed waves (the so-called KdV equation).
In the theory of gravitational waves, the KdV equation is often represented in the form
x – c
t is an independent variable, c
, H is the depth of water in the absence of distur-
bances, γ is the surface tension of water, and ρ is its density.
It should be emphasized that, in the case where the nonlinearity uu
and the dispersion u
are in equi-
librium, the solution of the KdV equation has the form of a solitary wave (it is also called the one-soliton solu-
tion of the KdV equation):
xctsech ( )
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal, No.
53–61, September–October, 2006. Original article submitted November
11, 2004; revision submitted January 12, 2005
0928-5105/06/1605–0291 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 291