Physical Oceanography, Vol.
6, March, 2011 (Ukrainian Original No.
6, November–December, 2010)
INVESTIGATION OF THE OCEANIC CLOUDINESS ACCORDING TO THE DATA OF
SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS IN THE SPECTRAL RANGE 10.3–11.3 μm
N. A. Timofeev
The temperature of waters in the upper layer of the ocean and effective cloudiness (cloudiness with si-
multaneous indication of its amount and optical density) are important characteristics of the natural envi-
ronments. They determine the greenhouse effects and the energy of the ocean and atmosphere, and regu-
late climate. The satellite data on these characteristics enable one to reconstruct all components of the
radiation, heat, and water budgets in the ocean–atmosphere system and study their intra- and interannual
variations. We describe the procedures of evaluation of the effective cloudiness according to the sea-
surface temperature and the radiation temperature in the spectral range 10.3–11.3 μm. The development
of these investigations is connected with the advances in satellite hydrophysics: the satellite data become
more and more accurate, regular, and global.
According to the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) , the data on the radiation, heat, and water
budgets in the ocean–atmosphere system are used for the description of climate and in the development of new
methods of long-term weather forecasting. These investigations are especially urgent for the current period of
global warming of the climate  characterized by an increase in the positive anomalies of the surface air tem-
perature caused by the presence of excess amounts of greenhouse gases (formed as a result of combustion of the
fossil fuel) in the atmosphere. Since the mid-1980s, we observe a period of fundamental changes in the compo-
nents of global radiation budget
= (1 A
: the energy of the integral (over the spectrum
) long-wave radiation
[outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR)] increases in total by 15 W/m
and, at the same time, the intensity of short-wave (
) solar radiation
reflected into the
space [outgoing short-wave radiation (OSR)] decreases by 10 W/m
, which reveals changes in the transparency
of the atmosphere caused by the decrease in the concentration of aerosols and the presence of the additional an-
thropogenic (industrial) component in the greenhouse effect. The increase in the radiation “discharge”
into the outer space is a natural condition of the required defense of the planet against the elevation of
air temperature and a direct consequence of the observed global warming.
The last five decades are characterized by a trend of warming of waters of the World Ocean in the 0–1500-
m layer. Thus, as a result of thermal expansion, the level of water in the ocean increased by ~
0.01–0.02 m .
At present, the total trend of the global surface air temperature is equal to ~
0.7° per 100 yr . How-
ever, even the indicated relatively small increase in the global temperature is accompanied by a significant ele-
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Ukraine.
Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal, No.
58–77, November–December, 2010. Original article submitted April 29,
2009; revision submitted June 15, 2009.
0928–5105/11/2006–0451 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 451