ENERGY AND RESOURCE
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 12, pp. 2240−2045.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
U.P. Kudryavskii, A.V. Chub, 2010, published in Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost’, 2010, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 254−260.
Investigation of Processes of Chlorination
of Thorium-Containing Rare-Metal Concentrates,
Deactivation of Solutions, Puriﬁ cation of Scandium
from Impurities to Obtain Marketable Scandium Oxide
U. P. Kudryavskii and A. V. Chub
“Perm State Technical University” (National Research University), Bereznikovskii Filial, Bereznyaki, Russia
Scientiﬁ c and Industrial Ecological Firm “ECO-Technology” Ltd., Bereznyaki, Russia
“Solikamsk Magnesium Plant,” OJSC, Solikamsk, Russia
Received September 12, 2010
Abstract— The possibility and conditions of the inversion voltammetric estimation of antimony on the basis of
different in nature and concentration background electrolytes or buffer solutions are shown and optimized. It is
established that the elaborated method can be applied in the analysis of modeled binary, triple, and more complex
mixtures as well as of real natural objects and industrial materials. In all cases the elaborated inversion voltammetric
method is evaluated by metrological procedure, and the relative standard deviation (S
) is no more 0.129.
Rare-metal concentrates containing up to 30% of
, 10–90%, Sc
, from 3–5% to 20–30% of the
sum of TiO
, and impurities of Fe, Cr, Mn oxides
are formed at complex hydrometallurgical processing of
complex in composition multicomponent polymetallic
waste in one of the ﬁ rst stages of the general technological
scheme of the process of scandium extraction, in
particular, at sorption and/or at precipitation sorption.
Previous investigations  showed that it was not
possible to purify Sc and Th from impurities of Ti, Zr,
Hf by sorption, ion exchange, precipitation and co-
precipitation methods. In this connection the problem
of puriﬁ cation of Sc and Th from impurities of Ti, Zr
(Hf) is urgent for the development of technological
processes of the complex processing of spent melt of
titanium chlorinators, tails of wet magnetic separation
of titanomagnetites, red mud of aluminum production,
dumping slags of ferrotungsten production .
The method of high temperature chlorination is of
doubtless interest for puriﬁ cation of Th and Sc from Ti, Zr
(Hf). It is well known that titanium and zirconium form
low-boiling and volatile chlorides (boiling temperature
136°C and 331°C, respectively) whereas boiling
temperatures of chlorides of scandium and thorium
are 967°C and 992°C. This difference provides good
prerequisites for puriﬁ cation of scandium and thorium
from impurities of Ti, Zr (Hf). Earlier, the chlorination
method was used at processing rare-metal concentrates
obtained from the waste of the titanium production .
Preliminary briquetted charge (concentrate, oil coke
reducer, sulﬁ te pulp liquor as binder) was subjected to
chlorination. The process was carried out at 650–750°C
within 3–6 hours. This method provides high degree of
puriﬁ cation of thorium and scandium from titanium,
zirconium, aluminum and others. Disadvantages of
this method are the unsatisfactory productiveness,
periodicity and, the most important, the necessity of
preliminary briquetting of the charge. Methods based on
chlorination  in the melt of alkali metals chlorides are
more effective in this respect.
A large laboratory installation (Fig. 1) consisting
of an oven, a quartz chlorinator, a ﬂ ask for gathering
sublimates and a transformer with voltmeter was
prepared for carrying out experiments on chlorination of