P1: GKW/RKP P2: GKW
Psychiatric Quarterly [psaq] PH024-297921 April 26, 2001 15:1 Style ﬁle version Nov. 19th, 1999
Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 3, 2001
Further Deﬁning Anxiety and Depressive Disorders
Barbara L. Kennedy, M.D., Ph.D., and John J. Schwab, M.D.
To improve our understanding of common anxiety and depressive dis-
orders, it is essential to compare data regarding the scales frequently
used to evaluate such disorders. There is little data in the literature
that compares the use of these scales across these disorders to de-
termine if there are differential responses in the different disorders.
Also, few standard values for these scales in these disorders are avail-
able. In this series of clinical research reports, we sought to enlarge our
understanding of 4 common anxiety disorders (panic disorder, general-
ized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social phobia)
and 2 depressive disorders (major depression and mixed anxiety and
depression) by examining the following clinical scales: the Symptom
Checklist-90 (1), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Bond Defense
Style questionnaire (2), and the Cloninger Tridimensional Personality
Questionnaire (3). We had a total study population of 229 subjects, with
between 25 and 50 persons in most of 6 diagnostic groups. All of these
subjects had met strict DSM-III-R and other disorder-speciﬁc diagnos-
tic criteria, and there also was a small nonclinical comparison group.
We recognize some of the limitations of our series of studies (1).
Because our subjects were obtained by advertisement and were fre-
quently working individuals, they had few comorbid disorders and less
severe illness than comparable patients with chronic disorders from
psychiatric clinic practices (2). This series of data was collected when
DSM-III-R was still being used and does not include the changes in-
corporated in DSM-IV (3). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-
III-R was used for those subjects with panic disorder and generalized
anxiety disorder. Thus, not all subjects had the same assessment with
validated instruments for all Axis I disorders. However, each Axis I
2001 Human Sciences Press, Inc.