ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 593–597. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2014.
Original Russian Text © M.A. Slugina, K.V. Boris, A.A. Kakimzhanova, E.Z. Kochieva, 2014, published in Genetika, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 677–682.
The potato (
L.) is the fourth
most important food crop after wheat, rice, and maize.
It is known that the potato yield largely depends on
growth conditions, including the exposure to abiotic
stress. This dependence in the potato is stronger than
in other crops. For example, even one day of exposure
to water stress can lead to significant negative effects.
At present, it is known that the effect of abiotic
stress (drought, salinity, low temperatures) leads to
changes in carbohydrate metabolism in plants. More
over, many plant signaling pathways are triggered by
sugars in response to the influence of adverse environ
mental factors . It was demonstrated that sugars,
like hormones, could act as primary messengers and
generate signals, controlling the expression of differ
ent genes involved in the formation of tolerance to abi
otic stress . Thus, sugarmetabolizing enzymes play
an important role in plant growth and development
under conditions of abiotic stress.
One of the mechanisms underlying the adaptive
properties of the potato to different types of abiotic
stress is the capability for sugar
sion in the of carbohydrate metabolism cycle .
Today, it is known that carbohydrate metabolism in
potato tubers takes place with the involvement of at
least 40 enzymes, which affect the content and com
position of starch and other carbohydrates . More
over, the sucrose cleavage to glucose, the main compo
nent for starch synthesis, is realized by the action of
two enzymes, invertase and sucrose synthase. The
sucrose synthase, encoded in
gene, in the presence of NDP catalyzes the reversible
conversion of sucrose into NDPglucose and fructose.
The enzyme is detected predominantly in growing
potato tubers .
gene belongs to the large
sucrose synthase gene family, present in all higher
plants. At present, the full sequence of the
has been determined in the potato .
The coding sequence of the potato
of 2415 bp, which corresponds to a protein of 805 amino
acid residues in size and a molecular mass of about
92 kDa. The gene consists of 14 exons. It was demon
strated that the potato Sus4 sequence was character
ized by the presence of two domains determining the
main protein activities: the sucrose synthase (exons
from I to XI) and glucosyltransferase (exon XII) .
Despite the fact that sucrose synthase genes of
were sequenced, there are scant data on
the nucleotide polymorphism of these genes in potato
) cultivars and in its relatives.
The climate of Kazakhstan is generally unfavorable
for potato growing. High temperatures during the
tuberization period and a moisture deficit can dramat
ically decrease the yield of this crop . A similar cli
mate is characteristic of some of the Russian territories
(steppe and semidesert zones).
The present study was focused on an analysis of the
sequence polymorphism of the main sucrose synthase
gene domains in Russian and Kazakh potato cultivars
grown in the unfavorable climatic conditions of steppe
and semidesert zones.
Intraspecific Polymorphism of the Sucrose Synthase Genes
in Russian and Kazakh Potato Cultivars
M. A. Slugina
, K. V. Boris
, A. A. Kakimzhanova
, and E. Z. Kochieva
Bioengineering Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117312 Russia
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
National Center for Biotechnology, Astana, 010000 Republic of Kazakhstan
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, Department of Biotechnology, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Received October 28, 2013; in final form, February 3, 2014
—In 12 different Russian and Kazakh potato cultivars, the polymorphism of the glucosyltransferase
domain of the sucrose synthase gene was first examined, as well as the polymorphism of the sucrose synthase
domain fragment of the same gene in the potato cultivars of Kazakh breed. It was demonstrated that the
examined sequences contained point mutations, as well as insertions and deletions, including those not
described earlier. Amino acid substitutions specific to heat and droughttolerant varieties were also identified
and could be associated with the development of abiotic stress resistance.