MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS—RETINOPATHY (JK SUN AND PS SILVA, SECTION EDITORS)
Intraocular Inflammation in Diabetic Populations
Wajiha J. Kheir
Huda A. Sheheitli
Rola N. Hamam
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to determine
the prevalence of uveitis in the diabetic population, the clinical
features of the uveitis and diabetes when coexisting and path-
ophysiology of a possible correlation. We also aim to review
the cases of diabetes and uveitis in the literature.
Recent findings The basis of an association between uveitis
and diabetes mellitus (DM) is the common pathophysiology
of inflammation. There are several reports on a DM-related
uveitis, defined as idiopathic anterior uveitis in the presence of
poorly controlled DM, but causation has not been established.
Summary There are conflicting results in the literature regard-
ing an association between uveitis and DM. More studies are
needed to determine if an association truly exists.
Intraocular inflammation and its association with diabetes
mellitus (DM), whether type 1 or 2, has been explored by
several authors [1–6], starting with Noyes in 1868 . Since
then, several case reports have highlighted a possible link
between uveitis and DM [8–12]. In fact, uveitis has been con-
sidered to be an ocular manifestation of DM . In addition,
several authors have defined a DM-related uveitis, which is
uveitis in the presence of poorly controlled DM and in the
absence of any other underlying cause [3, 6, 14–16].
Although an association between uveitis and DM has been
suggested, causation has not been established [14, 15, 17].
Despite that, many articles discuss the postulated immunolog-
ical link between diabetes and uveitis [1, 3, 18].
In our paper, we aim to explore the prevalence of uveitis in
the diabetic population, the pathophysiology of the proposed
correlation, clinical features of the uveitis, and diabetes when
coexisting. We will also review the different cases of diabetes
and uveitis published in the literature.
A systematic search of the literature was conducted by
accessing Pubmed, Medline, and Scopus databases on
December 2016 and January 2017. The keywords uveitis,
iritis, iridocyclitis, vitritis, chorioretinitis, retinitis, vasculitis,
sympathetic ophthalmia, Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada, and the
Medical Subject Headings (MeSh) term uveitis were used to
collect all articles covering uveitis. The keywords diabetes,
glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, diabetic, glucosuria,
microglobinuria, and the MeSh term diabetes mellitus were
used to collect all articles covering diabetes. Non-English lan-
guage articles were excluded from the review. The combina-
tion of the two search strategies led to the identification of 41
articles, of which 23 included case reports/series. Six articles
were excluded because they were not relevant to the subject
matter. A search of immunological mechanisms relating to
diabetic retinopathy was also conducted using the key words
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Microvascular
* Rola N. Hamam
Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Immunology and Uveitis
Service, American University of Beirut, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107
Curr Diab Rep (2017) 17:83