Living Rev Relativ (2016) 19:3
Interferometer techniques for gravitational-wave
· Daniel Brown
· Kenneth A. Strain
Received: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 / Published online: 17 February 2017
© The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Abstract Several km-scale gravitational-wave detectors have been constructed world-
wide. These instruments combine a number of advanced technologies to push the limits
of precision length measurement. The core devices are laser interferometers of a new
kind; developed from the classical Michelson topology these interferometers integrate
additional optical elements, which signiﬁcantly change the properties of the optical
system. Much of the design and analysis of these laser interferometers can be per-
formed using well-known classical optical techniques; however, the complex optical
This article is a revised version of http://dx.doi.org/10.12942/lrr-2010-1.
Change summary Major revision, updated and expanded. The number of references has increased from
58 to 185.
Change details Added new Sects. 6, 7, 11, and a new Appendix “Advanced LIGO optical layout”.
Expanded Sect. 5 on “Basic interferometers”, Sect. 8 on “Interferometric length sensing and control”, and
Sect. 9 on “Beam shapes: Beyond the plane wave approximation”.
Due to a technical error during the production process the article was originally published with incorrect
bibliographical information. The article has been updated with correct bibliographical information. The
earlier version incorrectly identifying the article as Living Rev Relativ (2016) 19:1 should be disregarded.
The publication date was also corrected to 17 February 2017.
Kenneth A. Strain
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK