ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 4, pp. 540−546. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © G.F. Krysenko, D.G. Epov, M.A. Medkov, E.B. Merkulov, S.I. Ivannikova, A.I. Nikolaev, 2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii,
2016, Vol. 89, No. 4, pp. 422−428.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Abstract—Results obtained in a study of the interaction between the loparite concentrate and ammonium hydrodi-
ﬂ uoride are reported. It was found that the reactions of the main components of the concentrate with NH
complex ammonium ﬂ uorometallates. It was shown that water leaching of the ﬂ uorinated product makes it possible
to transfer niobium and tantalum into solution together with ﬂ uoroammonium salts of titanium and silicon and to
concentrate rare-earth elements in the insoluble residue in the form of complex salts of general formula NaLnF
Interaction of Loparite Concentrate with Ammonium
G. F. Krysenko
, D. G. Epov
, M. A. Medkov
, E. B. Merkulov
S. I. Ivannikov
, and A. I. Nikolaev
Institute of Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok, 690022 Russia
Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Science Center,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, Akademgorodok 26a, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Received February 26, 2016
Traditionally, the sulfuric acid method is the best
studied and most widely used technique for processing
of titanium-containing mineral raw materials, which
is due to its simple implementation and use of readily
available and inexpensive reagents. However, the sulfuric
acid schemes are characterized by comparatively large
material ﬂ ows and increased amount of liquid and solid
wastes. At the same time, certain kinds of mineral raw
materials are simultaneously titanium-containing, with
their content of titanium exceeded by the conventional
kinds of titanium raw materials of ilmenite, rutile, and
rare-metal types, which makes hardly efﬁ cient the world’s
experience in processing of titanium-containing raw
materials and requires that new technological solutions
should be developed.
Recently, the steadily increasing attention has been
attracted by methods for processing of mineral raw mate-
rials by ﬂ uoride methods. It is particularly advantageous
to use this approach in processing of polymetallic raw
materials because it can expand the assortment and raise
the degree of extraction of valuable components . The
reactions of oxygen-containing compounds of titanium
and other metals with NH
are of particular inter-
est due to the technological attractiveness of extracting
components from natural raw materials via formation of
ammonium ﬂ uorometallates . In addition, the ﬂ uori-
nating agent can be comparatively easily regenerated in
the hydroﬂ uoride processing method.
In the present communication, we report the results
obtained when studying the interaction between the loparite
concentrate and ammonium hydrodiﬂ uoride and analyzing
the distribution and occurrence forms of the main compo-
nents of the concentrate in this processing method.
The contents of the main components of the loparite
concentrate batch chosen for study are listed in Table 1.
Ammonium hydrodiﬂ uoride of pure grade was used as
the ﬂ uorinating agent.
The ﬂ uorination was performed in a nickel container
with a ﬂ uoroplastic condenser. The nickel container
was placed in an electrically heated reactor, with the
temperature of the electric furnace set with a VRT-2 high-
precision temperature controller. The weighed portions
were 50–100 g.