Plant Cell Rep (2017) 36:1375–1385 DOI 10.1007/s00299-017-2160-x ORIGINAL ARTICLE Insertion of a solo LTR retrotransposon associates with spur mutations in ‘Red Delicious’ apple (Malus 3 domestica) 1,3 2 2 1 1 • • • • • Mengxue Han Qibao Sun Junyong Zhou Huarong Qiu Jing Guo 2 1,3 1 • • Lijuan Lu Wenlei Mu Jun Sun Received: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published online: 2 June 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017 Abstract spur-speciﬁc, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th Key message Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length. strong bidirectional, stem-speciﬁc promoter activities, is This insertion-within-an-insertion was localized within a associated with the evolution of a dwarﬁng apple spur preexisting Gypsy-50 retrotransposon at position 3,762,767 mutation. on chromosome 4. The analysis of transcriptional activity Abstract Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized of the two sLTRs (the 2190- and 1536-bp inserts) indicated global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) that the 2190-bp sLTR is a promoter, capable of bidirec- retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, tional transcription. GUS expression in the 2190-bp-sense inter-retrotransposon-ampliﬁed polymorphism technique and 2190-bp-antisense transgenic lines was prominent in
Plant Cell Reports – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 2, 2017
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