The Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) species complex includes the polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), an ambrosia beetle infesting avocado limbs, Persea americana Mill. Synthetic quercivorol, a monoterpene alcohol, is known to attract females (males are flightless) over a range of release rates spanning three orders of magnitude. The upper release dose was extended 10-fold using sticky traps baited with quercivorol released at 1× (0.126 mg/day), 10×, and 108× relative rates to obtain a dose−response curve fitting a kinetic formation function. Naturally infested limbs of living avocado trees were wrapped with netting to exclude the possibility of catching emerging beetles on the encircling sticky traps. The results indicate PSHB are significantly attracted to infested limbs. Ethanol released over a 64-fold range (lowest rate of 7.5 mg/day) was moderately inhibitory of PSHB attraction to 1× quercivorol. β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol did not appear to affect attraction at the rates tested. A field test of potential inhibitors of 1× quercivorol was done using ~1 mg/day releases of monoterpene ketones: (−)-(S)-verbenone, (+)-(R)-verbenone, 3-methyl-2-cyclo-hexen-1-one (MCH or seudenone), piperitone, (+)-(S)-carvone, and racemic cryptone. Only piperitone and the two enantiomers of verbenone were strongly inhibitory. A blend of piperitone and verbenone tested together at different distances (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 m) from a 1× quercivorol baited sticky trap became increasingly ineffective in inhibiting the attractant as separation distance increased. Due to the relatively short-range repellency (<1 m), the inhibitors would need to be released from several places on each tree to effectively repel PSHB from avocado trees. Effective attraction radii, EAR, and circular EARc are estimated for the quercivorol baits released at 1×, 10× and 108× rates. Push-pull simulations of moving beetles were performed in 1 ha plots with 2, 4, or 16 traps of 10× EARc and 400 trees (0, 1, or 3 inhibitors per tree) of which ten had an infested limb (EARc = 0.5 m). The simulations indicate that push-pull methods would be more effective in reducing PSHB mating than simply using mass-trapping alone.
Journal of Chemical Ecology – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 17, 2018
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