Vascular calcification is a pathologic response to mineral imbalances and is prevalent in atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. When located in the media, it is highly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients on dialysis. Vascular calcification is tightly regulated and controlled by a series of endogenous factors. In the present study, we assess the effects of lysosomal and endosomal inhibition on calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and aortic rings. We observed that lysosomal function was increased in VSMCs cultured in calcification medium containing 3.5 mM inorganic phosphate (Pi) and 3 mM calcium (Ca2+) for 7 days. We also found that the lysosomal marker lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 was markedly increased and colocalized with osteogenic markers in calcified aortas from vitamin D3-treated rats. Interestingly, both the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine and the endosomal inhibitor dynasore dose-dependently enhanced Pi + Ca2+-mediated VSMC calcification. Inhibition of lysosomal and endosomal function also promoted osteogenic transformation of VSMCs. Additionally, lysosome inhibition increased Pi-induced medial calcification of aortic rings ex vivo. These data suggest that the endosome-lysosome system may play a protective role in VSMC and medial artery calcification.
Scientific Reports – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 21, 2018
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