Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 11, pp. 2018−2020.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © E.N. Cherezova, E.S. Il’icheva, Yu.A. Aver’yanova, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 11, pp. 1933−1935.
Inﬂ uence of the Structure of Organic Peroxides
on the Efﬁ ciency of Modiﬁ cation of SKI-3 Rubber
with Dicarboxylic Acid Anhydrides in Solution
E. N. Cherezova
, E. S. Il’icheva
, and Yu. A. Aver’yanova
Кazan State Technological University, Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia
Кazan State Power Engineering University, Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia
Received February 3, 2011
Abstract—The efﬁ ciency of modiﬁ cation of synthetic isoprene rubber with maleic and endic anhydrides in solution
was examined as inﬂ uenced by a number of initiator systems: dicumyl, dibenzoyl, and dilauroyl peroxides.
A vital task for rubber-processing industry consists in
development of modiﬁ ers able to improve the rubber to
metal cord adhesion. The function of such modiﬁ ers is
fulﬁ lled by organic compounds containing polar groups
(amides, anhydrides, esters of organic acids, organic salts),
able to form various bonds with metal [1, 2]. However,
because of extraction of low-molecular-weight products
by oils and solvents the operation time of a polymeric
material is reduced, and environmental problems arise.
Also, fairly high volatility of these compounds has an
adverse effect on rubber mixture processing at high
temperatures due to severe gas contamination of the
These shortcomings can be addressed via application
of high-molecular-weight adhesion modifiers which
can be prepared by polymer-analogous transformations
of agents containing polar groups and atoms with
a polymeric chain.
Suitable for this purpose are, in particular, unsaturated
dicarboxylic acid anhydrides (UDAAs) which are known
to react with carbochain polymers under radical initiation
conditions. In particular, the reaction of addition of maleic
anhydride to cis-1,4-polyisoprene initiated by benzoyl
peroxide leads to a structure comprised of an addition
product of succinic anhydride to α-methylene group .
However, this process is complicated by an unwanted
gelation reaction . Published data on rubber modiﬁ ca-
tion by UDAAs are fragmentary, and data on how the
modiﬁ cation efﬁ ciency is affected by the initiator system
Here, we examined the inﬂ uence of a number of
peroxide initiators on the efﬁ ciency of modiﬁ cation of
SKI-3 with unsaturated dicarboxylic acid anhydrides: cis-
ethylene-1,2-dicarboxylic (maleic anhydride, MA) and
anhydride (endic anhydride, EA). Special attention was
given to gel formation under conditions of initiated
polymer modiﬁ cation in the presence of different initiator
In our experiments we used the following compounds:
maleic anhydride (С
) [GOST (State Standard)
11153–75]; endic anhydride (С
) [TU (Technical
Speciﬁ cations) 225-334-05842324–96]; synthetic iso-
prene rubber, SKI-3 (GOST 14925–79); and peroxide
initiators: dibenzoyl peroxide, DBP (С
14888–78), dicumyl peroxide, DCP (С
ersintez Closed Joint-Stock Company, Dzherzhinsk), and
dilauroyl peroxide, DLP (С
Closed Joint-Stock Company, Dzherzhinsk).
The reaction of modiﬁ cation of SKI-3 with UDAAs