ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 2, pp. 254−262. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © M.O. Kazakov, P.P. Dik, O.V. Klimov, S.V. Cherepanova, Yu.A. Chesalov, A.S. Noskov,
2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii,
2016, Vol. 89, No. 2, pp. 247−255.
ORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Unconventional sources of hydrocarbon raw materi-
als, including black oil (OS), become more and more
important for world’s power engineering under the con-
ditions of exhaustion of conventional crude oil resources
and of an increase in the demand for high-quality motor
fuels . The total content of hydrocarbons in depos-
its of such shale exceeds several times their content in
conventional crude oil resources , and their master-
ing will considerably expand the resource base on oil
The organic matter in black oil is kerogen distrib-
uted in an inorganic matrix. The content of extractable
bitumen is usually very low. Liquid hydrocarbons can
be produced from black oil via thermal decomposition
of kerogen. The temperature at which kerogen starts to
actively decompose is close for black oil of different ori-
gins and is in the range from 340 to 360°C .
Today pyrolysis is the main method for producing
liquid hydrocarbons from black oil [4, 5]. Pyrolysis pro-
cesses, however, have signiﬁ cant drawbacks, primarily
low yield and poor quality of the products obtained .
Liquid hydrocarbons yielded by pyrolysis have high vis-
cosity and low stability; they are characterized by high
content of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen and therefore re-
quire additional ﬁ ning by hydrotreating or hydrocracking.
A promising way to obtain liquid hydrocarbons from
black oil is its hydrogenation processing. Conversion in
a hydrogen medium ensures higher quality and higher
yield of target products compared to pyrolysis [6, 7]. At
480–590°C and hydrogen pressure of 2.8–13.8 MPa, the
yield of oil shale in hydroconversion of black oil relative
to the yield in the Fischer assay can reach 115% in a
ﬁ xed bed  and 200–268% in a ﬂ uidized bed [8–12].
Russia is among world leaders in black oil resources
, but their mining and processing are developed very
poorly. Extensive mastering of black oil resources is
limited by the fact that their mining and processing are
more expensive compared to conventional crude oil and
are more hazardous for the environment. Therefore,
the development of more efﬁ cient technologies for
producing liquid hydrocarbons from black oil is a
In this study we examined the inﬂ uence exerted by
the conditions of hydrogenation processing of black oil
on the yield and properties of the liquid hydrocarbons
obtained and of the processed shale.
Inﬂ uence of the Conditions of Hydrogenation
Treatment of Black Oil on the Yield
and Properties of the Products Obtained
M. O. Kazakov, P. P. Dik, O. V. Klimov, S. V. Cherepanova, Yu. A. Chesalov, and A. S. Noskov
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Akademika Lavrent’eva 5, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Received December 17, 2015
Abstract—The conversion of black oil in hydrogen (hydroconversion) and nitrogen (pyrolysis) media was stud-
ied. The inﬂ uence of the hydrogen pressure and temperature of the hydrotreating of black oil on the yield and
properties of the resulting liquid hydrocarbons was examined. Hydrogen actively participates in the conversion
of kerogen (major organic component of black oil), which leads to an increase in the conversion of the organic
matter, to an increase in the yield of liquid hydrocarbon products, and to improvement of their quality, compared
to pyrolysis. The highest conversion of organic carbon (91.7%) and the maximal yield of liquid hydrocarbons
(30.7 wt %) were reached in a hydrogen medium at a pressure of 10.0 MPa and a temperature of 400°C.