1070-4272/05/7807-1199C2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1199!1201. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 7,
2005, pp. 1220!1222.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Gaikalova, D’yakonov.
Influence of the Components of the Conserving Polymeric
Composition on Preservation of a Photographic Image
E. S. Gaikalova and A. N. D’yakonov
St. Petersburg State University of Motion Pictures and Television, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received December 9, 2004; in final form, June 2005
Abstract-The possibility of improving a latex composition for conservation of archival and historically
valuable photodocuments by introducing additives was substantiated. The inertness of these additives to the
photographic materials during long-term storage was tested.
A vast amount of photographic materials is of
historical and art value, and their careful preservation
is an important task. Wide application in restoration
practice is found by polymeric materials, of which
aqueous polymeric dispersions are the most promising.
Along with film-forming substances, latexes con-
tain various functional additives such as, e.g.,
conservants, making them resistant to mold formation
and bacterial degradation, as well as foam quenchers
and inhibitors preventing corrosion of the surface
To impart additional characteristics to latex com-
positions for conservation of photographic documents,
it seems reasonable to introduce into them such addi-
tives as biocidal systems and light stabilizers.
A special place is occupied by coalescent additives
intended for formation of a uniform polymer phase
at lower and more technologically [convenient] tem-
peratures, at which the [barrier] of the glassy state,
characteristics of (co)polymers, is overcome. General-
ly, coalescence of globules consists in their mutual
approach, followed by deformation and contacts with
one another. When the protecting barrier is eliminated
(by introducing coalescents), such mutual approach
should have a fluctuation character. If the barrier is
preserved, it is overcome owing to moisture evapora-
tion, because the globules are forced to approach one
another to distances shorter than the critical distance.
The amount of water retained in the interglobular
spaces is insufficient for hydration of the protecting
layers, and the system gets destabilized .
Some latex brands do not require introducing
coalescents, while formation of films from other
brands requires introducing coalescents. Suitable as
coalescents are nontoxic substances dissolving the
polymer, which are usually selected taking into ac-
count the donor3acceptor mechanism of dissolution.
Coalescents should act as solvents and plasticizing
agents with respect to polymers and also be volatile,
but they should evaporate not very fast and at a con-
In conservation of photodocuments, one of the
most significant criteria governing the choice of
coalescents is their absolute inertness to photographic
materials during long-term storage. Hence, in this
work we chose as conservants methylene chloride
(MC), ethanol (E), and acetone (A), used in prepara-
tion of the base for film and photographic materials
and satisfying the above-mentioned requirements.
Our experiments showed (Table 1) that the coales-
cent being introduced virtually does not affect the
preservation of the image. Thus, the choice of coales-
cents should be dictated by their physicochemical
properties. From the viewpoint of the uniform char-
acter of application of the coating and the time of its
drying, as well as of the above-mentioned factors,
methylene chloride seems the most acceptable coa-
lescent, as confirmed by its solubility parameters
These data show that the solubility parameters are
the closest for solid poly(methyl methacrylate)
(PMMA) and solvent, MC.
From the viewpoint of the solvency, the most
advantageous is the solvent whose solubility param-