ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 143−152. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © E.M. Nurullaev, A.S. Ermilov, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 154−163.
Inﬂ uence of Physicochemical Parameters on the Energy
of Mechanical Failure of an Elastomer Filled
with Polyfractional Silicon Dioxide
E. M. Nurullaev and A. S. Ermilov
Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Komsomol’skii pr. 29, Perm, 614000 Russia
Received November 18, 2014
Abstract—The inﬂ uence of the effective concentration of cross-links, including permanent chemical bonds and
variable intermolecular (physical) contacts, of the fractional composition of the dispersed ﬁ ller, and of plasticiza-
tion on the energy of the mechanical failure of a three-dimensionally cross-linked plasticized elastomer reinforced
with silicon dioxide was examined. The computer program developed by the authors was used for calculating
the energy of the mechanical failure of real composites as applied to the problem of the development of a wear-
resistant polymeric composite material for waterprooﬁ ng frost-resistant asphalt coating and deformation seams
for automobile roads in climatic zones with wide range of temperature variation.
Polymeric composite materials based on a three-
dimensionally cross-linked elastomeric matrix ﬁ lled with
solid particles are widely used in various parts and units
in aviation, ship, and automobile building. Elastomers
ﬁ lled with polyfractional silicon dioxide are used in
building industry, including house rooﬁ ng and ﬂ ooring
in sports facilities.
The mechanical characteristics of these materials
largely determine the operation life of a speciﬁ c part or
unit. The most important physicochemical parameters
are the molecular structure of the chain in the polymer
base of the plasticized binder and the volumetric degree
of effective ﬁ lling, which depends on the shape and
fractional composition of dispersed ﬁ ller particles and
on the intermolecular interaction at the elastomer–ﬁ ller
interface . Knowledge of the relationship between the
structural and mechanical characteristics allows solution
of both direct and inverse optimization problems in the
development of new polymeric composites with the re-
quired set of operation properties .
When determining the mechanical characteristics at
uniaxial extension, as the most frequent deformation in
engineering practice, it is appropriate to plot envelopes
of the specimen failure points determined at different
temperatures and strain velocities according to Smith
[3–6] in the coordinates
are the breaking stress and relative
elongation at break, respectively; T and T
are the testing
temperature and the chosen reference temperature
(usually 293 K).
Thus, the envelope of the specimen failure points
is indirectly related to the area under the extension
diagram, i.e., to the energy (work) of mechanical failure
of a polymeric composite. This fact, however, does
not allow more complete evaluation of the mechanical
characteristics of polymeric composite materials (PCMs).
An equation for the failure energy of a ﬁ lled elastomer
was derived previously ; its use allows unambiguous
estimation of the inﬂ uence of physicochemical parameters
on the mechanical characteristics of PCMs.
In this study we examined by the numerical method
the inﬂ uence of the main physicochemical parameters on