ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2006, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 336!338. + Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.
Original Russian Text + R. F. Nafikova, L. A. Mazina, E. I. Nagumanova, V. S. Minkin, R. Ya. Deberdeev, 2006, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii,
2006, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 337!339.
Influence of Metal-Containing Lubricants
on Characteristics of Polyvinyl Chloride
R. F. Nafikova, L. A. Mazina, E. I. Nagumanova, V. S. Minkin, and R. Ya. Deberdeev
Kaustik Joint-Stock Company, Sterlitamak, Bashkorkostan, Russia
Kazan State Technical University, Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia
Received August 22, 2005
Abstract-The influence of metal-containing lubricants based on monoesters of glycerol and higher isomeric
saturated monocarboxylic acids on characteristics of polyvinyl chloride was studied.
Mechanochemical stabilizers or lubricants are
the imperative component of polyvinyl chloride for-
mulations, especially those of rigid types . In re-
covery of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the presence of
lubricants results in a decrease in their internal fric-
tion; as a result, the recovery temperature decreases,
forming of PVC materials proceeds more smoothly
and rapidly, and degradation of PVC decreases. In
addition, the distribution of the formulation com-
ponents becomes easier and the outward appearance
of articles is improved.
A wide variety of chemicals are used as lubricants
in processing of PVC. They differ in the influence on
PVC characteristics, polarity, and compatibility with
New metal-containing Vikol lubricants based
on higher isomeric saturated monocarboxylic acids
(HIAs) are the product of telomerization of ethylene
with isobutyric acid.
New metal-containing lubricants are produced in
a single stage by the reaction of HIA and glycerol
(1 : 1 molar ratio) in the presence of oxides of biva-
lent metals (Zn, Mg) or their two-component mixture
in an amount of 0.630.8% relative to the total reac-
tion mass at 1803190oC.
The lubricants traditionally used in industrial pro-
cessing of PVC are glycerol monoesters based on sat-
urated and unsaturated higher carboxylic acids, pre-
dominantly glyceryl monooleates, monostearates, and
monorecinoleates [1, 2]. Contrary to acids with normal
structure, HIAs have lower freezing points, infinite
First obtained at the Kaustik Joint-Stock Company.
solubility in organic solvents, and higher viscosity due
to the presence of short branchings in their molecules.
It was of interest to study how lubricants prepared on
the basis of HIAs affect the characteristics of PVC.
The Vikol lubricants with various lengths of hydro-
carbon chain were obtained and tested in comparison
with the well-known surface lubricants, in particular,
hydrocarbon wax and Glitserol.
As subjects of the study we used PVC of the S-
6358M brand, Vikol metal-containing lubricants,
whose characteristics are listed in Table 1, and also
commercial Glitserol (ester of glycerol and synthetic
fatty acids) and polyethylene wax PV-200. To study
the influence of lubricants on the characteristics of
PVC, the formulations were prepared as follows:
100 wt parts of suspended PVC, 3 wt parts of tribasic
lead sulfate, 1 wt part of calcium stearate, and up to
5 wt parts of lubricant were homogenized in a lab-
oratory mixer at 90oC for 30 min. The resulting mix-
ture was rolled on a PD 320 laboratory roller at 175oC
for 5 min. The ultimate tensile strength and the rel-
ative elongation were determined on an RMI-250
As can be seen from Table 1, the samples studied,
which differ in the length of the hydrocarbon chain,
have different densities, viscosities, and molecular
mobilities (judging from the freezing point). It should
be noted that these differences in the characteristics of
metal-containing additives should affect their compat-
ibility with PVC and, hence, affect the characteristics
of the formulations containing these additives.