INFLUENCE OF HIGH-ALUMINA PETROCHEMICAL WASTE PRODUCTS
ON THE POROSITY STRUCTURE OF ACID-RESISTANT MATERIALS
V. Z. Abdrakhimov
and V. K. Semenychev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 9, pp. 45 – 48, September, 2010.
Original article submitted March 31, 2010.
It is established that the addition of high-alumina petrochemical waste products to ceramic compounds leads
to a reduction in the content of “dangerous” pores in acid-resistant materials that have been roasted in the tem
perature range 1280 – 1300°C from 88 to 54%. Moreover, this step does not tend to produce uniform porosity
in the samples.
Keywords: high-alumina petrochemical waste products, acid-resistant materials, porosity structure, danger
ous pores, integral differential porosity diagram, diffuse low-angle dispersion, radius of curvature
The key element of the present study is a qualitative and
quantitative evaluation of the distribution of pores by size
and an evaluation of the interaction of pores of different
types in ceramic materials [1 – 3].
A number of different classifications of pores and of po-
rosity based on different attributes and properties of porous
structures have been developed on the basis of studies of the
porosity of ceramic materials [1, 2]. The creation of a uni
form classification of pores and porosity for different porous
materials and media involves significant difficulties, and for
this reason there sitll not exist a generally accepted classifi
As a result of experimental studies carried out by A. V.
Lykov , it was established that the fundamental properties
of ceramic articles are affected by pores 10
m in dimen
sion. Such pores may become filled with water due to ad
sorption of moisture from the moist air and, conversely, re
lease moisture into the atmosphere. Upon cooling, the water
in the pores undergoes a 9% increase in volume in the transi
tion from the liquid to the solid state, which can induce the
destruction of construction ceramic materials [1, 2, 5].
In[1,6–8]itwaspointed out that pores measuring up to
250 ´ 10
m are nondangerous, inasmuch as they never be
come filled with water (in view of the difficulty of removing
air). Pores measuring 250 ´ 10
400 ´ 10
m are consid
ered dangerous. In the opinion of M. K. Gal’perina,
macro-capillary pores with radius from 10
dangerous for ceramic articles [3, 9]. Pores of this size are
said to be “dangerous,” since the presence of a significant
quantity of such pores as a component of the overall porosity
makes a material non-frost-resistant. Thus, all the well-known
works that were focused on the investigation of the
physico-chemical processes involved in the evolution of the
structure of ceramic materials were basically devoted to
studies of ceramic materials based on traditional raw materi-
The possibility that high-alumina waste products gener
ated in the petrochemical industry, e.g., depleted IM-220 cat
alyst, could, in theory, be used in the production of acid-re
sistant materials based on kaolin from the Chapaev deposit
was demonstrated in , though the influence of this waste
product on the porosity structure of ceramic material was not
studied. In the present study the influence of petrochemical
waste products on the porosity structure of acid-resistant ma
terials will be studied.
Two compositions were selected for a study of the influ
ence of high-alumina waste product from the petrochemical
industry on the porosity structure of acid-resistant waste
product (wt.%): Composition 1, Chapaev kaolin 60, fireclay
from Chapaev kaolin 40; Composition 2, Chapaev kaolin 60,
high-alumina petrochemical waste product 40 . The ce
ramic compound was prepared by means of plastic molding.
Following grinding to enable the material to pass through a
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 51, No. 5, January, 2011
1083-4877/11/5105-0382 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Samara Academy of State and Municipal Management, Samara,