1070-4272/05/7811-1836+2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1836!1839. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 11,
2005, pp. 1868!1871.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Yudilevich, Kolikova.
AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS
Influence of Fabric-Enclosed Positive Electrodes
on Self-Discharge Mechanism of Active Masses of Lead Batteries
S. R. Yudilevich and G. A. Kolikova
Istochnik Research Battery Institute, Joint-Stock Company, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received August 8, 2005
Abstract-The self-discharge of lead batteries with fabric-enclosed positive electrodes was studied. The self-
discharge mechanism was proposed.
On storage of charged lead batteries, the active ma-
terials of electrodes spontaneously react with the elec-
trolyte. On the positive electrode, lead dioxide reacts
with sulfuric acid:
O + 1/2O
and alloy components used for fabricating a current
lead are oxidized with lead dioxide. In the overall
self-discharge balance, the alloy oxidation is not pre-
The self-discharge of a negative electrode is deter-
mined by two reactions: reaction of lead with sulfuric
Pb + H
and oxidation of lead with oxygen formed by the
reduction of lead dioxide
Pb + 1/2O
It was estimated in  that, in the overall self-dis-
charge balance of the negative electrode, reaction (3)
is insignificant, since lead sulfate formed on the sur-
face of active material impedes access of oxygen
molecules toward the surface of spongy lead. Reac-
tions (1) and (2) proceed on electrodes independently.
The capacity losses by a battery owing to the self-
discharge of active materials can differ, because even
the same factors, such as, e.g., the electrolyte density,
differently affect self-discharge of lead and lead
The modern alloys used for fabricating current
leads of positive electrodes contain considerably less
antimony and other alloying additives. This results
in a weaker transfer of corrosion products toward
negative active mass and, as a result, in the decreased
rate of spontaneous dissolution of lead.
It was established that, with the positive electrode
covered by a fabric, the self-discharge of a lead bat-
tery can be decreased several-fold . This is partly
due to the fact that the antimony transfer from posi-
tive to negative electrode is weaker .
We studied how fabric envelope affects the loss of
capacity by stationary TB-M batteries and by high
power (HP) traction batteries in the course of storage.
The current leads to positive electrode of TB-450M
batteries were fabricated from the US-1M alloy con-
taining small amount (1.5%) of antimony, and those
to the pilot samples of HP traction batteries, from
the alloy containing 4% antimony.
The TB batteries were tested from the beginning of
the life till the 40th cycle inclusive.
The results of the tests (Table 1) show that not
loss, but some increase in capacity is observed for
TB-450M batteries stored for 15 days, i.e., within the
period of time imposed on TB batteries by GOST
[(State Standard) 26881386] and TU (Technical
Specification). The same results were obtained for bat-
teries stored for 18 and 20 days. The loss of capacity
by a reference TB-600 battery whose positive elec-
trodes were not enclosed with a fabric and current
leads were also fabricated from the US-1M alloys was
about 0.4% day
The fact that the fabric-enclosed positive electrodes
largely affect the self-discharge rate was also con-
firmed on pilot HP batteries tested on the 21322nd
and 81382nd cycles. The HP batteries with positive
electrodes made of the same materials without fabric
envelope were tested as reference. The capacity of the
pilot batteries stored without current for 10 days was